Teenagers were given to apprentices, but in fact they became errand boys. Ivan Bogdanov "Novice" (1893)
Messengers, newsmen, nannies, factory workers, footmen. Throughout the 19th century, the 6+ principle operated on the Russian labor market. But, of course, it was not about age restrictions in cinemas. Beginning at the age of seven, their poor parents sent many children to work, and from the age of 10–12, most of the young inhabitants of the cities earned their living on their own. The luxury of a carefree childhood was available only to the lucky ones.
Children work in a tea-packing factory
Before the revolution, children grew up early. In Russia, following the example of European countries and the United States, they have always been considered, if not full-fledged, then at least quite tolerable workers, thanks to whose "pay" families somehow could make ends meet. The Industrial Revolution expanded child employment opportunities. Machine tools appeared in factories; accordingly, brute male power in many enterprises ceased to be necessary. Instead of strong muscles and endurance, speed, dexterity of fingers and cheapness came to the fore. Thus, children began to appear at enterprises. According to rough estimates, by the middle of the 19th century, the number of children under 14 years old in factories reached 25 percent of all workers, adolescents under 18 years old - another 25 percent.
Until the 80s of the XIX century, there were no norms for young workers in the state, so the working conditions for them were the same as for adults, that is, unbearable. Factory inspectors who traveled all over Russia noted that “at matting factories, work continues above 16 and 18 hours a day, the same picture periodically on calico, porcelain. It is reported from the Kazan district that until 1881 the work of minors (up to 14 years old!) Continued at some flax spinning, flax-weaving factories and tanneries for 13 hours, at cloth factories - 14-15 hours, in shoemaking and hat workshops, as well as oil mills - 14 hours.
In the matting factories, where more than half of the workers were children, there was a completely uncomfortable schedule. Rogozhniki got up at one in the morning, worked until 6 in the morning, had breakfast for half an hour, worked until 12 noon. Half an hour - lunch, after that work until 11 o'clock at night. According to the recollections of zemstvo doctors, fatigue and lack of sleep among factory children were so great that little patients who had been injured in some way fell asleep during the operation so tightly that they did not even need chloroform.
One of the most famous paintings by Vasily Perov is devoted to child labor. Vasily Perov "Troika (Apprentices of artisans bring water)" (1866)
A frantic schedule is only half the trouble. Factory inspectors noted the inhuman conditions in the factories themselves. As a rule, the law was in force: the smaller the enterprise, the worse the conditions. Stuffiness, lack of ventilation, stench and unsanitary conditions.
“Smoke heating was found in seven tanneries, without pipes,” the inspectors said in their reports. - Out of a thousand factories in the Moscow province, only three of them carry out periodic floor cleaning. Working in a treacle plant (at a sugar factory) causes a special, purely occupational disease, namely abscesses on the legs. Because in the treacle section, the worker stands barefoot in molasses, and the slightest abrasion or scratch is eaten away. In a fermentation plant, where children from seven years of age work most of all, a healthy and unaccustomed person in a quarter of an hour will have a headache to fainting from the unbearable stench and dampness emitted by fermented coal. In the chiropractor, children from seven years of age (working 12 hours a day) walk and spread hot crumbs, from which dust covers them from head to toe. In the laundry room, girls from 14 years old, completely naked, wash napkins dirty from beet juice in highly lime water, from which their skin on their bodies bursts. "
It is not surprising that the health status of young workers made a depressing impression on doctors: "You will not find such wax-colored faces with deep sunken eyes and completely blue under-eye sockets anywhere else," wrote inspector-doctor Gvozdev, describing the situation on small factories.
April 19 - International Cycling Day. In Russia, this type of transport has been popular for almost two centuries. The first bicycles in our country began to appear in the 19th century in St. Petersburg. SPB. IF. U figured out how it was and which two-wheelers were in vogue two centuries ago.
The history of the invention of the bicycle in the form in which it has reached our days is not known for certain. According to one of the popular versions, the first bicycle with pedals, a seat, a steering wheel and two wheels was designed by the Russian serf mechanic Efim Artamonov in 1800. The structure invented by him weighed 40 kg and reached one and a half meters in height. Pedals were attached to the front wheel with a diameter of just over a meter, and the rear wheel, which was half the size, spun by inertia. Subsequently, this model was called "bone shaker": it was inconvenient and even painful to travel by such transport. Nevertheless, a year later, the mechanic still drove his invention from Yekaterinburg to Moscow itself. Emperor Alexander I, impressed by this result, even freed the craftsman from serfdom. However, the patent for the creation of the bicycle was never issued to Efim. As a result, the unusual invention was soon forgotten.
A few years later, Karl von Dreis, a forester from Germany, constructed a similar model out of wood - however, in this version, the bicycle did not have pedals, and the person had to constantly push off the ground with his feet. In 1817, the invention of a German was patented as the world's first bicycle. Its design was constantly being modernized, and already in the middle of the 19th century, a chain drive appeared on bicycle models - such a model was called "kangaroo" - and a few years later, tires on wheels were pumped with air, and transport could reach speeds of up to 30 km/h.
In Russia, bicycles began to appear in St. Petersburg in the second half of the 19th century. Then this type of transport was considered a luxury, and not everyone could afford it: a bicycle cost from 250 to 400 rubles, while the average salary of a worker was only 20 rubles. In 1880, a hundred cyclists were registered in the city on the Neva. One of the first Russian cyclists was the Emperor Alexander II, who on his "bone shaker" liked to make cycling trips around Tsarskoe Selo. Even the tsar could not ride in St. Petersburg: at that time it was strictly forbidden to ride a bicycle along the streets of the city. One of the most popular routes for cyclists was the Petersburg highway near Tsarskoye Selo. Cunning bike mechanics took advantage of this: to increase their profit from repairs, they stretched thin wire across the road or rolled large stones on the highway so that cyclists could not avoid an accident.
Cyclists were able to obtain permission to ride within the city limits only at the end of the 19th century. A whole set of rules was issued specifically for this: for example, it was forbidden to ride bicycles in crowded places, as well as in parks or squares. It was believed that a man on a two-wheeled "iron horse" frightens ordinary horses harnessed to a cart with his appearance. A separate paragraph was devoted to this: "In case of anxiety of horses, the cyclist must slow down or get off the bike," the rules said, "and, if possible, close it with himself."
In tsarist Russia, in order to obtain permission to ride a bicycle, it was necessary to pass an exam. To get a license, it was necessary to get under way on the bike, make the "eight", and then brake sharply and jump off the vehicle. All manipulations of the examinee were monitored by a strict commission of three police officers. If a person coped with all the tasks, he received a special document and a license plate for a bicycle. The people who failed the exam trained and tried again a week later. According to the documents, representatives of the royal dynasty also passed a similar exam. Alexander III, Empress Maria Feodorovna, Nicholas II and all his children loved to ride a bicycle, and Grand Duke Sergei Mikhailovich even took part in bicycle races.
With the development of transport, interest in bicycles began to decline. At the beginning of the 20th century, when the first motorcycles appeared, many cycling organizations in Moscow and St. Petersburg disintegrated. The cost of the bike has dropped, and now everyone could afford it. Currently, this type of transport has been able to regain its former popularity: now everyone can choose an "iron horse" for every taste and color. Many people deliberately end up with a car and make a choice in favor of a bicycle: it is absolutely environmentally friendly, eliminates waiting in traffic jams and allows you to play sports on the way to work or while walking. Now we can confidently say: the future belongs to the bicycle.
The article is devoted to the history and formation of agritourism abroad and in Russia. The author reveals the premises and reveals the reasons for the emergence of this business. It shows that the origins of agricultural tourism go back to the times of Antiquity. And in subsequent eras, interest in agricultural tourism was great. However, during the First and Second World Wars, interest in him faded away. The revival of agricultural tourism took place already in the post-war period. The author demonstrates the history of agritourism using the example of specific countries, reveals its features in Germany, France, Italy, Poland, China. The article reveals the prerequisites for the emergence of agritourism in Russia, special attention is paid to the traditions of hospitality of the Russian people. The author identifies the stages of the formation and development of agrarian tourism, shows the role of dacha culture as one of the attributes of the everyday life of the bourgeois class. The importance of agricultural tourism for peasant farms has been demonstrated. The author shows the role and place of agricultural tourism in the general system of tourism in the USSR. He notes that during the Soviet period of Russian history, agricultural tourism was not given sufficient attention. Tourism in the USSR performed other functions, no one considered it as a tool for the development of agriculture. Therefore, he developed on an amateur basis. If in the pre-revolutionary period the centers of agricultural tourism were the northern territories of the Russian Empire, then in the USSR it developed in the Caucasus. main scientific result: after analyzing the history and current state of tourism, the possibilities of training personnel for this industry, the author concludes that there are unlimited prospects for agricultural tourism in Russia.
Key words and phrases: agrarian tourism, hiking, summer cottages, village, peasants, bourgeoisie, everyday life.
History of daily: agrarian tourism in Russia and abroad (with antiquity before our days) century
The article is devoted to the history and development of agro-tourism abroad and in Russia. The author reveals the background and the reasons for the emergence of this business. He shows that the origins of agrarian tourism go back to the days of Antiquity. In subsequent periods the interest in agricultural tourism was great. However, during the First and Second world wars interest waned. The revival of agrarian tourism has occurred in the postwar period. The author shows on the example of specific countries the history of the farmhouse reveals its features in Germany, France, Italy, Poland, China. The article reveals the preconditions for the emergence of agro-tourism in Russia, paying particular attention to the tradition of hospitality of the Russian people. The author reveals the of formation and development of agrarian tourism, shows the role of country culture as one of the attributes of everyday life of petty bourgeoisie. Demonstrated the value of agricultural tourism farms. he author shows the role and place of agricultural tourism in overall tourism activities in the USSR. He notes that in the Soviet period of Russian history agricultural tourism was not given sufficient attention. Tourism in the Soviet Union carried out other functions, no one saw it as a tool for the development of agriculture. So he was developing on an Amateur basis. If in the pre-revolutionary period the agricultural centers of tourism in the Northern territory of the Russian Empire, the Soviet Union, he received the development. Main scientific results: after analyzing the history and current state of tourism and training opportunities for this industry, the author makes a conclusion about the unlimited prospects for agricultural tourism in Russia.
Key words and phrases: Agricultural tourism, Hiking, cottages, village, peasants, commoners, everyday life.
Agricultural tourism, some authors call it rural, mixing concepts, involves recreation in the countryside, i.e. in the village, on a farm, in a peasant hut and an agricultural estate. It is an important part of everyday life, allowing you to recuperate and once again plunge into the whirlpool of a busy city life.
Residents of the city, once in the village, get acquainted with the history, lifestyle, customs and traditions of peasants, take part in agricultural work, celebrate peasant holidays, spend their leisure time fishing, hunting, picking mushrooms and berries. This is, in general, the picture of agricultural tourism - one of the most promising areas in the development of rural areas and small businesses in rural areas [7, p. four]. In modern Europe, for example, every third person chooses this type of tourism. And this is no coincidence. According to safety criteria [5, p. 3] this is one of the most calm and peaceful types of recreation, freeing a person from the bustle of the city.
However, in order to organize an effective and efficient agricultural tourism, it is necessary to carefully study the history of its formation and development both in Russia and abroad. The origins of agricultural tourism go back to Antiquity. Ancient pilgrims went to distant countries in order to get acquainted with the customs, life and traditions of the peoples who inhabited them. Travelers' stories about other lands have always fascinated local residents. It is known that even in the VI century. BC ... Roman citizens went to Egypt hoping to see with their own eyes the delights of Eastern culture, to see the pyramids, the floods of the Nile, etc. It is no coincidence that Herodotus, who is rightly considered the first historian in the history of mankind, was also a traveler. The philosopher Democritus, in turn, said that one can cognize nature only through direct communication with it.
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