In modern society, the problem of preserving and strengthening the health of children is more urgent than ever before. What is health? In the explanatory dictionary of S. Ozhegova is "Correct, normal body activity." The Charter of the World Health Organization (WHO) states that health is not only the absence of disease or physical defects, but also complete physical, mental and social well-being.
Most preschool children have various disorders in psychophysical development. Health, as you know, is 50% determined by lifestyle, and the lifestyle model is formed in childhood. Therefore, it is so important to form a habit of a healthy lifestyle in preschool age. Health-preserving education is a tool for achieving a high quality of life. The main result of health-preserving education should be the acquisition of a state of harmony, mental balance and vitality. A preschool educational institution must constantly master a set of measures aimed at preserving the child's health at all stages of his education and development. There are various forms and types of activities aimed at preserving and strengthening the health of pupils. Such a complex has now received the general name "health-saving technologies".
Health-saving technologies in preschool education are technologies aimed at solving the priority task of modern preschool education - the task of preserving, maintaining and enriching the health of subjects of the pedagogical process in kindergarten: children, teachers and parents.
With regard to a child, the goal of health-preserving technologies in preschool education is to ensure a high level of health for a kindergarten pupil and foster a valeological culture, as a combination of a child's conscious attitude to human health and life, knowledge about health and skills to protect, maintain and preserve his value-logic competence, which allows the preschooler to independently and effectively solve the problems of a healthy lifestyle and safe behavior, tasks associated with the provision of elementary medical, psychological self-help and assistance. With regard to adults - promoting the development of a culture of health, including the culture of professional health of preschool educational institutions and valeological education of parents.
Types of health-saving technologies in preschool education: • medical preventive; • health and fitness; • technologies to ensure the social and psychological well-being of the child; • health preservation and health enrichment of preschool teachers; • valeological education of parents; • health-preserving educational technologies in kindergarten.
Health-saving educational technologies in kindergarten - technologies of upbringing valeological culture or health culture of preschoolers. The goal is the formation of a conscious attitude of the child to the health and life of a person, the accumulation of knowledge about health and the development of skills to protect, maintain and preserve it, the acquisition of valeological competence, which allows the preschooler to independently and effectively solve the problems of a healthy lifestyle and safe behavior. This is a technology of personality-oriented education and training of preschoolers. The leading principle of such technologies is taking into account the personal characteristics of the child, the individual logic of his development, taking into account children's interests and preferences in the content and types of activities in the course of education and training.
Analysis of special literature, study of practical experience showed that one of these approaches is the use of elements of tourism in work with preschoolers [1, 2, 4, 5]. At the same time, it was revealed that accessible forms of tourism are used in kindergartens mainly for cognitive and educational purposes. The issues of activating the motor regime with the use of tourism means, which allow not only to improve the child's motor sphere, but also to form his personal qualities, as well as expand information about the life around him, have not yet taken their due place in the physical education of preschoolers. We believe that this is due to the fact that the methodology for using tourism means has not been developed, there are no organizational and methodological approaches that allow teachers to use them in working with children in a preschool educational institution (preschool educational institution).
"Tourism", according to the Great Soviet Encyclopedia, means travel in free time, one of the types of outdoor activities. Unfortunately, these concepts are not very clear and do not sufficiently reflect the meaning and essence of tourism. However, from these definitions it follows that tourist travel includes two concepts: a trip and a hike. A trip is a trip along a tourist-excursion, pre-developed route using transport. A hike is an active way of moving tourists along a route (on foot, on skis, boats, etc.).
The fact that childhood is characterized by a desire for unusualness, for adventure and romance should not be underestimated. Tourism is a great tool that naturally meets the needs of children. During the hike, the children reveal themselves from a completely different side than in kindergarten. In this respect, the trip is especially valuable for the teacher, as it allows a deeper understanding of the nature of each of the children and an individual approach to them. This contributes to real mutual understanding and the establishment of cooperative relationships, which is then carried over into future life. Tourism is a means of broadening the horizons and enriching the spiritual life of children. During a tourist trip, the ability to overcome difficulties is developed, children learn collectivism not in words, but in deeds. Regular engagement in tourism develops conscious discipline, perseverance, and responsibility in children. Tourism integrates all the main aspects of education: moral, labor, physical, aesthetic, etc. In natural conditions, there is a great opportunity to enrich the motor experience of children. Hemp, grooves, trees, streams, logs, as well as natural material (cones, sticks, pebbles, etc.) stimulate the physical activity of children. Repeatedly, tirelessly and reducing interest, performing various motor actions in natural conditions (forest, park, meadow, field, lake shore), the child shows creativity, muscle liberation. During the movement, children improve their walking skills on rough terrain. Research confirms the positive dynamics of indicators of the main types of movements and sports exercises during hiking. Significant changes are taking place in improving not only endurance, but also strength, speed, and coordination abilities. The field life experience develops the initial skills of survival in the natural environment in preschoolers. Tourism is an excellent means of active recreation. It contributes to the development in children of the ability to organize their leisure time in an interesting and meaningful way. Interestingly thought out physical activity of children in natural conditions develops their interest in tourism and physical education, increases motivation for health and a healthy lifestyle.
The Concept of the Demographic Development of the Russian Federation for the Period up to 2015, approved by the Order of the Government of the Russian Federation of September 24, 2001 No. 1270-R, is aimed at a radical change in the critical state of health and demographic situation, which is a system of views , principles and priorities in the field of regulation of demographic processes. The concept was developed on the basis of the Decree of the President of the Russian Federation of 10. 1.000, No. 24 "On the concept of national security of the Russian Federation." In accordance with this concept, the Government of the Russian Federation has adopted a number of federal target programs that consider certain problems of maintaining and strengthening health, preventing diseases of the population of Russia (V. Oldak, A. Upriyanov, 2004). "Concept of the demographic development of the Russian Federation for the period up to 2015" among the goals, objectives and principles contains directions for improving the quality of physical education, monitoring physical fitness and physical development of children. The most important task of upbringing and education of the younger generation, a decisive condition for the formation of a new level of culture of vital activity of the population of the national and world culture of physical activity, actualized in a healthy lifestyle (V. Alsevich, 2002).
In the "Program of education and training in kindergarten" edited by M. A. Vasilyeva it is written: "Depending on ... the material and technical equipment of the kindergarten, ... the professional preparedness of the teaching staff, the type of activity of the preschool educational institution teachers can make certain changes in the species diversity of physical exercises or introduce their options that are most appropriate for the structure of a particular institution ... ". From this we can conclude: the improvement of physical education in preschool educational institutions, taking into account the modern socio-economic situation leads many pedagogical teams to the need for more active use of the means and forms of tourism (A.A. Ostapets, 1995). Such attention to this means of physical education is not accidental, since the use of tourism allows not only to positively influence the formation of skills and abilities vital for the child, but also to activate the upbringing of the personality.
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