Heading: Psychology and Sociology
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Kozlova, E. N. Employment of youth as an object of social management/E. N. Kozlova. - Text: direct//Young scientist. - 2010. - No. 3 (14). - S. 252-257. - URL: . u/archive/14/1273/(date accessed: 18.2.021).
Social governance in society is largely aimed at regulating the processes taking place in the social sphere. The subject of social management and social policy is education, health care, social protection of various strata of the population, culture, art, sports, tourism, physical culture, etc. The limited possibilities of the textbook do not allow dwelling in detail on the problems of managing the entire social sphere. The choice was made in favor of employment, and there are several reasons for this.
Firstly, this is one of the most widespread spheres of life, since more than 2/3 of the country's youth almost every day (directly or indirectly) come into contact with it. Secondly, labor activity allows young people to provide for themselves a family and self-determination in life. Employment is an important and multifaceted area of the economic and socio-political life of society. So, labor is one of the most important components of the social sphere. It can be considered both as a type of human activity, and as a process of interaction between various social communities involved in a particular sphere, and as a social system, and as a social institution. Social management of youth employment takes an important place.
What is Social Employment Management? One of the definitions is considered as “the purposeful activity of all subjects to ensure the formation, optimal functioning and compulsory development of a busy young person.
One of the strategic tasks of today's Russian society is to accelerate economic growth. The implementation of this target implies an increase in the number of employed, primarily young people. The shortage of personnel is a significant constraining factor in these processes. Our sociological studies show that about half of the enterprises in the region are not staffed with workers, and the average age of workers is approaching 50, which aggravates the situation. The severity of the problem dictates the need to take urgent measures to involve young people in production. In the Kursk region, a special program to promote youth employment has been developed and is being successfully implemented, aimed at attracting young personnel to the region's economy as much as possible. Among the economic factors that must be taken into account in the formation of youth employment policy, in our opinion, structural changes play an important role. The anticipated shifts in the structure of the economy should be linked to employment and aimed at increasing its efficiency. However, in our country, the sectoral structure of employment over the past 10 years has undergone only minor changes.
The analysis of the situation shows that the basis of violations of the professional balance in the world of work is the discrepancy between the structure and quality of training of workers by vocational education institutions and the demand for it from employers, the lack of development of mechanisms for interaction of the labor market with the market of educational services, and unsettled social partnership in this domain. The fundamental influence on the structural deficit of workers is exerted by the socio-economic state of economic entities. According to our data, the share of labor-deficient enterprises and organizations in the region increases with the deterioration of their economies: from 16% to 70.0% for managers and specialists, from 22.6% to 50.0% for skilled workers and from 31.0% up to 65.0% - for unskilled. Among the many reasons for the shortage of personnel are low motivation of young people to work in production, unsatisfactory working conditions and pay, lack of a guaranteed social package, etc. A paradoxical situation arises: on the one hand, even dynamically operating enterprises experience a shortage of young qualified personnel, on the other hand, - graduates of educational institutions cannot find work in their specialty. Labor demand is significantly differentiated between urban and rural areas. So for example, if in the regional center 0.6 workers apply for 1 vacancy of a locksmith, then in the regions of the region - 5.5 people, a construction worker-finisher - 0.2 and 2.4 people, respectively, a car driver - 1.0 and 6.5 people, tailor - 0.7 and 6.0 people. etc.
Consider the characteristics of the professional structure of demand (vacancies) and supply (job seekers) Figure 1, compiled according to the data of the regional employment service at the beginning of 2009. The data presented clearly demonstrate the disproportionality: the excess of the number of vacancies over the number of job seekers in both categories of workers, while for specialists the picture is the opposite - supply exceeds demand. On average, there are 1.5 vacancies for 1 skilled worker, and 0.5 vacancies for 1 specialist.
Fig. ... Structure and ratio of demand and supply of labor,%
Carpenters, joiners, welders, machinists, machine operators, construction workers are most in demand among the mass working professions. The analysis shows that young people are in no hurry to take vacant jobs in enterprises with old machines and equipment and poor working conditions. This is partly due to the shortage of personnel in many enterprises in the presence of an excess supply on the labor market. In this regard, the labor market of the country in general, and the Kursk region in particular, faced the following problems.
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