Leisure, rest, recreation are important moments in human life, along with production activities. For people who are little employed in a productive sphere of activity (the elderly and the disabled), leisure is of great importance. Its forms, types and quality determine the success of rehabilitation and adaptation processes and integration into society.
Tourism is a unique means of recreation and rehabilitation for people with health problems, since its functions correspond to rehabilitation tasks, include various mechanisms of adaptation and self-adaptation, subject to active participation in the process of the rehabilitator himself.
What allows us to consider tourism as one of the means of rehabilitation?
First, tourism is physical activity. It is known that movement is of great importance in human development from the first minutes of life. The movement of various parts of the body, the body as a whole, movement in space is a necessary factor in the development of the physical and psychophysiological qualities of the body throughout life. Chronic diseases, disability, age-related changes lead, as a rule, to a decrease in physical activity, thereby contributing to a decrease in the mental and physical stability of the body.
Tourism has a big impact on the health of the elderly and people with disabilities. As Tadeusz Lobotsevich notes, tourism is a factor that counteracts hypokinesia, which has a destructive effect on health and psyche. Motor limitations significantly reduce life opportunities, cause depression, despondency, stress, loss of faith in oneself. Through tourism, therapy and prevention of psychosomatic diseases, maintenance of physical fitness and health are carried out.
Secondly, tourism creates an environment of full communication, in which a person with problems interacts with different people, establishes social contacts and has the ability to fulfill different social roles.
Tourism eliminates feelings of loss of dignity, inferiority, and integrates the elderly and disabled into society.
Sports and tourism provide an opportunity for independent and diverse contacts to provide confident and effective life support.
Thirdly, the reproductive function of tourism is aimed at restoring the forces expended in the performance of production and everyday household duties. Tourism also helps to restore the mental resources of a person. At the same time, the rest is active in nature, including a variety of entertainment that helps to distract from the monotony of everyday life and work, to get to know the world more broadly, to get acquainted with various traditions, customs, new people, to learn previously unknown natural phenomena.
Fourth, the environmental friendliness of tourism as an activity. A favorable climate, beautiful nature, the proximity of water bodies (river, lake, sea), the presence of natural monuments, monuments of material culture - all this contributes to a positive psycho-emotional mood, which is also a rehabilitating factor.
Fifth, tourism provides opportunities for personal development. Knowledge of the history, culture, life of other peoples carries a great humanitarian potential, enriches a person, broadens his horizons. The humanitarian significance of tourism is not only in its cognition, but also in its peaceful orientation, in the intellectual and educational impact on the individual, especially on the younger generation. Tourism helps to establish friendly relations with residents of other regions and countries.
In modern Russia, many groups of the population, including pensioners and disabled people, find themselves in a difficult economic and socially unprotected situation. The main goal of the rehabilitation of these groups is to get the opportunity to participate in the labor and socially useful life of society on the basis of conditions created by the state, society and the person himself, as well as improve the quality of life in general. This is possible if all spheres of life are accessible.
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