Social adaptation of people with disabilities

Social adaptation

Man is an almost perfect example of how you can adapt to different environments of climate, flora and fauna. It is enough to see how different the conditions in which people live in different parts of the planet are: neither the constant cold nor the sweltering heat became an obstacle. But our habitat is not limited to climatic features.

Despite the high adaptive capabilities, instability and dynamism of the modern world, they require increased mobility. Social adaptation of a person is an urgent problem of a risk-generating society, on which the emotional and psychological comfort of an individual depends. Finding himself in different conditions of existence, a person is forced to constantly interact and take on different social roles.

What is social adaptation

This concept means a complex and continuous process of adaptation (in Latin - "adaptatio") of an individual or whole groups to the social environment in which they plan to realize themselves. These can be both completely new conditions and familiar situations that have undergone changes under the pressure of economic, political, spiritual, ideological or social forces. In addition, socialization implies not only active participation in the adoption of socially significant rules, norms and values, but also their subsequent transfer to other participants in the social environment.

French sociologist and philosopher Emile Durkheim said that social adaptation is a kind of criterion for the evolution of society. The absence of norms, the vague rules of society, which the individual will subsequently accept - the pathology of society.

It is noteworthy that the concept itself is adapted by researchers. Although social adaptation is widely studied (biology, philosophy, sociology) as an independent object of research, there is currently no single scientific term, definite criteria and indicators.

Features of social adaptation

Socialization is divided into two processes: one concerns the methods of adaptation from birth to death, the rules of behavior are formed by the close circle of the environment (parents, relatives, friends) - an objective process; the second is associated with a person's personal qualities, views and beliefs, without taking into account age characteristics or position in society - a subjective process.

The assessment takes into account the interaction of many components:

  • objective social conditions. Includes social background, educational level.
  • environment conditions. These include interactions within the family, in the school or work collective.
  • personality traits. The passivity or activity of a person in social work, creativity and talents are taken into account.

Also, depending on the goals of the research, a comparative analysis of the process of adaptation of the individual within the macroenvironment (society as a whole), the microenvironment (within one group), intrapersonal adaptation (the comfort of the individual himself) can be carried out.

Adapting, a person becomes a participant in new connections - interactions, and if they are stable enough, then the goals that he sets for himself, adapting, will be realized more successfully, and his susceptibility to stress will be minimal.

A person's adaptation to new conditions is called adaptation. Social adaptation is the process of mastering the norms and rules of behavior in society by a citizen. From the point of view of social science and psychology, social adaptation performs important functions in the process of socialization. In some people, the formation of socially approved behavior is faster, in others it is slower. The rate of adaptation to life in society depends on many factors.

Mechanism of social adaptation

The mechanism of social adaptation is complex and lengthy. An individual is under the influence of powerful external factors, public opinion presses on him, he can be condemned for defiant behavior or violation of the legal order of society.

Studying social adaptation means examining the activity and independence of a person as an important element of decision-making, getting acquainted with the peculiarities of his activities and attitude to work, diagnosing the level of responsibility and the ability to foresee the consequences of his actions.

Signs of successful completion of the stages of this process are:

  • Self-criticism lies at the heart of a person's character;
  • Demanding attitude towards himself and others;
  • Serious attitude to work, high-quality performance of their duties responsibilities;
  • Objective assessment of the results of their work;
  • Developed reflection and a tendency to introspection of their achievements and failures.

Attention! At the initial stage of adaptation to life in society, a person seeks to transform social reality and existing conditions, and ultimately transforms his attitudes and values.

What functions does this process perform

Adaptation in society performs the following functions significant for a person:

  • Enriches him with new working knowledge;
  • Stimulates the manifestation of an active life position for the good of the country;
  • Teaches him to put up with contradictions within himself; <
  • Teaches you how to properly respond to contradictions between your own value attitudes and the requirements of society;
  • Gives a sense of security in the work collective;
  • Allows you to work in an area that attracts a person;
  • Allows you to provide for yourself and your family;
  • Helps to find harmony.

Today we will look at the topic: "Social adaptation" with a full writing of the problematic. We have collected the most interesting information on the topic and tried to systematize it and bring it into an easy-to-read form.

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The concept of "adaptation" comes from the Latin word adaptatio - adaptation. The most important task of the adaptation process is the problem of human survival, through the adaptation of the individual's organism to the processes of the natural and social environment. There are four types of human adaptation: biological, physiological, psychological, social. These species are closely related, but sometimes they can have relative independence or acquire a temporary priority.

The specificity of human adaptation is that this process is associated with the socialization of a person, with the process of assimilating social norms of behavior, with "growing into the social world." In essence, social adaptation is the most important mechanism of socialization. If "socialization" is a gradual process of personality formation in certain social conditions, then the concept of "social adaptation" emphasizes that, in a relatively short period of time, a person is actively mastering a new social environment.

The process of social adaptation must be considered at three levels:

1) society (macroenvironment) - adaptation of the individual and social strata to the peculiarities of the socio-economic, political, spiritual and cultural development of society;

2) social group (microenvironment) - adaptation of a person or, conversely, a discrepancy between the interests of a person and the interests of a social group (production team, family, educational team, etc.);

3) individual (intrapersonal adaptation) - the desire to achieve harmony, balance of the internal position.

A person is part of a wide system of professional, business, interpersonal, social relations that allow him to adapt in this society. The system of social adaptation includes different types of adaptive processes: production and professional adaptation; household; leisure; political and economic; adaptation to forms of social consciousness.

Adaptation is understood as the process of interaction of an individual with a radically changing environment, during which the requirements and expectations of both parties are gradually coordinated. The individual gets the opportunity to survive, and the macroenvironment - to reproduce and enter a different, ascending stage.

Social adaptation at the individual level includes:

1) the implementation of the mechanism of interaction between the individual and the microenvironment by means of a certain adaptation to it through communication, behavior, activity;

10 minutes Irina Smirnova 3171

According to statistics, there are approximately 16 million people with disabilities in Russia, that is, about 10% of the country's citizens have serious health problems that interfere with their lives in one way or another. The main goal of such people (and their families) is to adapt in society enough to make their existence as comfortable as possible.

The inferiority of a group of individuals as a whole also affects the well-coordinated functioning of society, therefore, the social adaptation of disabled people (AIS) is one of the urgent tasks of the state. The solution to this issue is to provide such people with legal, economic, labor protection and all other possible benefits.


The term "disability" means a developmental feature, disease or condition of a person, accompanied by restrictions on his life in various areas. The inferiority of a person is currently a problem not only for her and her closest environment (family, place of employment, etc.), but also for the whole of society.

The origin of the term “disabled” comes from the Latin word “volid”, which means “full-fledged”, “effective”, “powerful”. Consequently, adding a negative prefix results in “defective”, “ineffective”, etc. established posts.

One of the most important problems of people with disabilities is not even the very lack of legal capacity, but the attitude of other people towards them. Most healthy citizens are treated from a purely medical position, that is, a disabled person in their understanding is a person who is limited to a certain extent in the ability to move, see, hear, speak or write.

The result is a paradoxical situation in which a disabled person is perceived as a completely sick person, unable to work and study, as well as to normal daily activities. This forms and cultivates the opinion in society that a partially incapacitated person is a burden, a dependent, that is, it comes almost to "preventive eugenics".

One involuntarily recalls the story of 1933, when, after the Nazis seized power in Germany, the "T-4 euthanasia program" was created, which implies the destruction of patients over 5 years old and disabled people as disabled members of society. The same thing happened in Western Europe and applied to the injured warriors.

Only after the end of World War II, in the course of the creation and development of the general movement for the protection of human rights, the concept of “disabled” was formulated, which includes persons with physical, intellectual and mental disabilities. A more specific division into categories occurred much later and still has no clear boundaries in Russian legislation.

Socio-psychological adaptation

The most important and necessary condition for the normal functioning of society as an indivisible social organism is an adequate social and psychological adaptation corresponding to the norm. After all, it involves the integration of the subject into social conditions through the acquisition of status, position in the social structure of society.

Social adaptation of a person demonstrates the process of assigning the prescriptions and values ​​of a particular society.

Psychological adaptation is manifested by the restructuring of the dynamic template of the personality in accordance with the new requirements of the surrounding world. In psychological science, adaptation processes mean transformations that take place in the reactive or sensitive sphere of the sensory organ of the senses or receptor, which are of a temporary nature.

Adaptation in social psychological science refers to the modification of the system of relationships in a cultural or social sense. Any structural transformation or behavioral restructuring that is of vital importance is considered as socialization.

Social adaptation of a person determines a certain state of a person, in which his needs and environmental conditions are fully satisfied, on the one hand, and on the other, it is a process through which such harmony is achieved. Adaptation as a process takes the form of transformation of the environment and modifications in the body of subjects through the use of actions that will correspond to a specific situation.

There are two diametrically opposite classifications of the socio-psychological adaptation process proposed by A. Nalchadzhyan and I. Kalaykov.

Below is the classification of adaptation by A. Nalchajyan. Social adaptation of a person can take place according to the norm, it can deviate from the norm, then we should talk about deviant adaptation. He also highlighted pathological adaptation. A normal adaptation process leads a person to a stable adaptation in a typical problematic environment without abnormal transformations of its structure, as well as without violating the prescriptions and requirements of social unification in which the person's activity takes place.

Deviant or deviating from the norm socialization is characterized by the satisfaction of personal needs in a specific social setting or group, however, along with this, the expectations of other members of the social process are not embodied in reality due to the behavior of the individual. The process, which is fully or partially realized with the help of abnormal mechanisms and behavioral variations, leads to the development of pathological complexes, character traits that form neurotic symptoms and psychopathic syndromes. This process is called pathological adaptation.

The classification proposed by I. Kalaikov contains three forms of adaptation: external, internal and readaptation. External adaptation is expressed in the process through which the subject adjusts to objective external problem situations. He called the internal adaptation the process of transformation of the internal qualities of the personality, the formation of new ones due to the influence of external circumstances. He characterized re-adaptation as an adaptation in a new social environment, a collective, where different values, rules, requirements and ways of behavior prevail, where the leading activity is completely different. Readaptation is accompanied by a revision or rejection, in part or in whole, of norms, prescriptions, values, social roles, forms of behavior, as well as individual adaptive mechanisms. This process is accompanied by serious personality modifications.

The process of social adaptation is closely related to the formation of individuality. The social adaptation of individuals has a number of individual psychological characteristics, as a result of which it cannot occur simultaneously and with the same force in different areas of the subjects' being.

Socio-psychological adaptation is the process of implanting individuals into a certain group, which includes them in the system of relationships formed in it. In the socio-psychological adaptation process, two components should be distinguished. The first contains an increase in the number of indefinite social events in which a certain social association of subjects does not yet possess normative prescriptions about the tasks and fruits of its own activity. Moreover, such prescriptions do not yet exist either on the part of groups at a higher social level, or based on their own group experience. The second component consists in transformations of social reality, which are accompanied by the emergence of new forms of social activity and social roles, which leads to corresponding multivariate manifestations at the level of collective consciousness, the emergence of specific, previously non-existent group prescriptions, including norms that are opposite in their direction.

Social adaptation of the individual serves as a connecting element between social activity and the social nature of the individual, while contributing to the development and meaningfully enriching the social environment and nature of the individual. The core component of the adaptation process is considered to be the correlation of self-assessments, aspirations and desires of an individual with his potential and the reality of social conditions, which also includes trends in the formation of the environment and the individual. The environment influences the subject or collective, which selectively assimilates or transforms such influences in accordance with its own inner nature, and the subject or collective actively influences the surrounding conditions. Such a mechanism of adaptation, formed in the course of socialization of the individual, becomes the foundation of its activity and the basis of behavioral reactions.

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