Annotation. the article proposes a scientific substantiation of the initiative to create the Saratov tourist and recreational cluster; analyzes foreign and Russian experience in the creation and development of tourist and recreational clusters; the scientific-organizational and cultural-historical prerequisites for the creation and development of the Saratov tourist and recreational cluster are identified, its components are systematized.
Key words: cluster, tourism, tourist and recreational cluster, Saratov cluster.
A modern cluster serves as institutional implementation and testing in the real sector of the economy of the city, region, region of educational potential and scientific developments. A cluster is a well-established scientific construction and definition of primarily an economic order. It is advisable to plan, design, form a cluster as a component of a special economic zone of a tourist and recreational type, a local prototype of a system of a larger scale.
According to M. Porter, a cluster is a group of geographically concentrated interconnected companies (suppliers, manufacturers, providers) and organizations (educational institutions, government bodies) operating in a specific area and complementing each other. He notes that externally oriented clusters serve as the basis for economic growth: “Regions should focus on increasing the productivity of all clusters in which they have a significant position, rather than trying to migrate to more“ desirable ”clusters” [17, p. 138].
Analysis of the latest research allows us to conclude that the definition of "cluster" is accompanied by numerous definitions, such as scientific, industrial, service, informational, innovative, etc. all of the above characteristics with the dominance of one of them. The cluster is a real mechanism of cooperation in carrying out joint activities of all interested actors (in our case, the tourist environment) in order to implement programs and plans aimed at improving the tourist direction in the development of a city, region, region. Clusters are designed to regulate the relationship between private companies and government agencies. It is important to leverage existing cross-sectoral links and work towards public-private cooperation, develop dialogue and industry professional associations. To make a decision on the creation and development of a cluster, it is necessary to accumulate a critical mass of knowledge on many issues. Currently, researchers offer a number of characteristics, combinations of which justify the choice of a particular cluster strategy: geographic, horizontal, vertical, lateral, technological, focal, qualitative [25, p. 9].
A tourist and recreational cluster is a group of social institutions in the tourism and hospitality sector concentrated on a certain territory: tour operators, travel agents, accommodation facilities, catering organizations, transport companies, universities, research institutes, government bodies, etc. ., complementary and reinforcing the competitive advantages of individual components and the cluster as a whole. An integral part of the cluster is the physical infrastructure of roads and railways, infrastructure of hospitality and leisure, scientific and information support.
According to A. Alexandrova, the tourist cluster is a specific form of spatial organization of the tourism industry, which allows synthesizing the study of the stability of the tourism system as a socio-economic phenomenon with an analysis of the consequences of tourism activities and the importance of the tourism industry for sustainable regional development. The researcher identifies the main features of a cluster: territorial concentration of economic units, close interaction of process participants, deep technological cooperation based on participation in the value accumulation system. “A special innovative environment is being formed in the cluster, contributing to the increase in the competitiveness of its member firms and the prosperity of the region ... Clusters play a decisive role in the formation of tourist centers, attracting visitors to them and increasing their competitiveness” [4, p. 21].
Tourist and recreational clusters, which have gained global distribution, reflect the local specifics of the area, city, region. In recent years, the Russian Federation has intensified the process of creating and developing regional and local clusters, including tourism and recreation, which is associated with the adoption in 2006 of amendments to the Federal Law "On Special Economic Zones in the Russian Federation" and the allocation of special economic zones tourist and recreational type. In our opinion, the design of tourist and recreational clusters is a promising research area, which is confirmed by international practice: many regions and countries follow the path of creating clusters. The clustering of territories is a system of "large cells" of the system of local and regional complexes and industries, in which favorable conditions for investors are created.
The authors of the article see their task in considering the scientific-organizational and cultural-historical prerequisites for the creation and development of the Saratov tourist and recreational cluster.
International experience shows that government initiatives in cluster policy are focused on supporting sustainable companies and creating an enabling environment in which outsiders can increase their competitiveness. Running a cluster project requires full-time employment of several employees, appropriate organizational structure and funding. Officially registered federal and regional clusters can receive budgetary support .
“Social tourism as a means of active life. Social tourism The main goals and objectives of the project Social tourism for the elderly is a new form of service aimed at preserving
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