12 minutes Irina Sokolova 4876
After registering a disability, a citizen or his representative receives an individual program of rehabilitation and habilitation (IPRA). This document is being developed by experts from the Bureau of Medical and Social Expertise.
Habilitation and rehabilitation of disabled people are aimed at compensating for the impaired functions of the body and returning a person to society. Not all people with chronic diseases know whether it is obligatory to follow the recommendations specified in the program, what types of assistance can be obtained free of charge, who is responsible for implementing the program.
The Federal Law (FZ) No. 181 of 1995 entitled “On the Social Protection of Disabled People ...” defines the concepts of habilitation and rehabilitation. Rehabilitation for people with disabilities is an activity aimed at fully or partially restoring the ability to perform all kinds of activities (health, everyday life, professional sphere). Habilitation is the process of forming previously absent skills in various fields.
The main areas of this activity include:
The correct approach to recovery measures includes equipping disabled people with the necessary technical means of rehabilitation, creating the possibility of unhindered access to various infrastructure facilities, transport, providing complete and up-to-date information on issues of interest.
People with disabilities and their family members should be aware of their rights, be able to get to the institutions where they provide assistance, and easily integrate into society. For a more complete study of the issue of rehabilitation of disabled people, Russian specialists study the experience of foreign colleagues from countries that have created comprehensive rehabilitation programs (Germany, Sweden, Poland).
The IPRA card is developed for the period for which a person is determined to be disabled: from 1 or 2 years old, children up to 14 or 18 years old. If a person is assigned a group without re-examination, then the IPRA is issued for an indefinite period. If necessary, a disabled person can be re-sent for a medical and social examination (MSE) for its correction. This issue is decided by the attending physician at the place of residence.
Recommendations in the rehabilitation card are developed individually. However, the volume and types of activities specified in a specific program cannot be less than the federal list that is guaranteed to all disabled people. Only professionals with work experience and relevant education are involved in the recovery of persons with chronic diseases.
Disability is a factor that complicates a person's life from all points of view: it becomes more difficult not only to self-serve oneself in everyday life, but also to afford an ordinary social life. The financial sphere is no exception, since it is difficult for a person with disabilities to get an education and find a suitable job. With the development of information technologies, there has been some progress in these issues, fundamentally new approaches and methods of social adaptation, rehabilitation, provision of services and ways to realize oneself in the professional field for disabled people have appeared.
The use of innovative technologies allows to partially or completely restore the lost functions caused by congenital or acquired disabilities, makes it possible to extract from the information vacuum in which he was due to disabilities, and return such a person to active communication in a social environment ...
The development of information technology has led to tremendous progress in education for children with disabilities and adults with disabilities.
If earlier the issue of education of a school-age child fell solely on the shoulders of parents or guardians, or was reduced to the format of specialized boarding schools, now it has moved to a new level. Thanks to the Internet, these students can gain knowledge on a daily basis through lessons and materials directed to them by the social worker who is teaching this student. In addition, the teacher can control the assimilation of the material thanks to surveys and real-time testing conducted in an online format.
The same method applies to higher education for the disabled. In developed countries, various government programs have been launched that make it possible to study at universities for people with disabilities in a distance mode. This is ideal for those who are unable to fully move or get normally to the place of study.
Webcams are installed in the lecture halls, thanks to which the student gets the effect of being present in the classroom. Some leading universities in the world have established feedback, that is, a student, while staying at home or in a medical facility, can participate in discussions with other students or ask additional questions to the teacher, which equates him in opportunities with the rest of the group.
Modern universities, institutes and academies practice the creation of automated workstations that are connected to the local network of the university. From such a workplace, a student with a disability can work with a central database. He not only sees the results of his activities, but also gets access to materials and study guides for the required semester, takes tests and exams, communicates with other students and participates in virtual Olympiads or seminars.
The technology of distance education for disabled people is only gaining momentum, but it has already shown its effectiveness in obtaining a worthy place in society and further implementation in the chosen profession or scientific activity.
Competition is an important form of social rehabilitation of disabled people. With the advent of remote technologies, persons with any disabilities can take part in it. This helps them to increase their self-esteem and realize that there is a cell in society that people with disabilities can occupy.
Such online contests help to master the principles of self-presentation, develop independence in expressing thoughts, feel their significance and the ability to influence the result. In addition, such online events perfectly demonstrate that there are more people with similar problems than it seems. Often, after such competitions, the participants establish friendly relations, and the most decisive translate them into a real format.
Comprehensive psychological assistance to people with disabilities is an indispensable element in the recovery and further social adaptation of people. Conducting courses of psychotherapy in different directions can help in such an event. Thanks to this, it will be much easier and faster to join society.
The concept of psychological adaptation includes a number of medical and social activities. They are aimed, first of all, at complete recovery and partial correction of mental disorders or deviations. The reason for such problems lies in the personal conflict of people who have gone through a difficult period in life, which led to disability. Rehabilitation includes the following list of principles:
Psychological rehabilitation is the labor and social recovery of a person in society, thanks to the creation of conditions for him without a feeling of inferiority.
Standard actions are carried out in two stages - inpatient treatment in a support center and subsequent rehabilitation, adaptation to society. In order to enhance the effect of treatment, a therapeutic atmosphere is created around the disabled person in the circle of loved ones or relatives. Therefore, the social worker is obliged to work fruitfully with relatives. This makes it possible to immerse yourself in the problem and quickly end the rehabilitation period.
Attention is paid to recovery in work, taking into account the limitation of his life. One perceives psychological interference with understanding and helps employees to understand the problem, while the other enters a passive-negative state. Such patients slow down the rehabilitation process. This suggests that classes are important not only with the person with a disability, but also with their relatives in order to build trust and productive treatment.
Rehabilitation of this type is a list of measures, the purpose of which is the adaptive restoration of the personality in society. This type of rehabilitation is carried out in the following directions:
When discussing the issue of imperfection of the public procurement system in Russia, media representatives, activists of public and political associations pay most attention to such a complex issue as corruption. Indeed, cases of abuse in the procurement of goods and services by representatives of regional or municipal authorities are striking in their arrogance and cynicism and cannot but cause indignation in any adequate person. However, there are other problems in the public procurement system, albeit less noticeable to an ordinary person, but equally complex and requiring solution. But so far they remain unresolved and are completely ignored by the structures that are called upon to be responsible for improving the public procurement system.
The most indicative in this regard is the problem of providing disabled people with spinal cord injuries and diseases (wheelchair users) with vouchers for sanatorium treatment. According to the Federal Law No. 178-FZ "On State Social Assistance" and the regulations adopted in accordance with it, wheelchair users have the right to receive free vouchers for sanatorium-resort treatment, and the obligation to provide people with disabilities with this social service is assigned to the regional branches Social Insurance Fund of the Russian Federation.
The Fund's branches organize work to provide people with disabilities with preferential vouchers in accordance with Federal Law No. 44-FZ "On the contract system in the procurement of goods, works, services to meet state and municipal needs." For this purpose, they periodically conduct competitive procedures for the right to conclude state contracts with sanatorium-resort institutions, which are ready to provide people moving in wheelchairs with specialized conditions for rest and treatment. After the competitive procedures, the regional branch of the Foundation concludes a contract with the selected sanatorium-resort institutions and issues vouchers for wheelchair users.
At first glance, such an organization for choosing a service provider - a sanatorium and resort institution in which wheelchair users will have a rest - is logical and understandable, it allows you to avoid corruption schemes and fraud when concluding a contract, but in reality it brings a lot of troubles and difficulties for those for whom these contracts are concluded - the people with disabilities themselves.
Most Russian cities and villages are not at all adapted for the so-called "spinal patients", therefore wheelchair users are forced to spend most of their lives at home, for weeks or even months without leaving the apartment, not being able to freely go to the street to chat with friends, relax, get quality medical care. Therefore, it is not surprising that they go to the sanatorium with a great desire and desire to have a good rest and feel what it is like to live without barriers, because it is assumed that the regional branch of the FSS issues them vouchers to a sanatorium, fully adapted for the needs of wheelchair users.
But they will be disappointed. Most of the sanatoriums applying for and winning the “spinal” spa treatment provider competition are poorly adapted for wheelchair users. Moreover, we are talking not only about the lack of specialized simulators for wheelchair users or a swimming pool, functional beds, but also about the fact that a person in a wheelchair in such "health resorts" cannot even go to the bathroom.
Russian wheelchair users, as experienced people and familiar with the specifics of recreation in domestic sanatoriums, traveling thousands of kilometers from home, carry bowls, sanitary chairs and other very useful attributes in such harsh conditions.
“In the sanatorium“ Lesnaya Polyana ”in Pyatigorsk, only rooms on the ground floor are adapted for wheelchair users, and all other rooms are very small, the opening to the bathroom is very narrow, and it is impossible to squeeze into it. During 42 days of rest, I have to wash from a basin ... In my room, even the refrigerator was unsuccessful, I could not open its door and reach the shelf, "- says Marina Vladimirovna about her" adventures "on vacation in one of the most famous sanatoriums for spinal workers, disabled person of the 1st group. And such are the conditions in a sanatorium-resort institution, which is considered one of the most adapted for spinal patients in Russia. Similar stories can be heard from people with spinal disabilities who had a chance to relax in the Izvestia sanatorium in Sochi, the Pearl of the Sea in Kabardinka and other sanatorium-resort institutions that proudly position themselves as health resorts adapted for people with disabilities and participate in competitions of regional branches of the Social Insurance Fund.
And Russian wheelchair users, as experienced people and familiar with the specifics of rest in domestic sanatoriums, traveling thousands of kilometers from home, carry with them basins, sanitary chairs and other very useful attributes in such harsh conditions.
Someone takes with them dynamic parapodiums, orthoses and other rehabilitation devices, not really hoping that they will find specialized exercise therapy rooms and qualified instructors in a sanatorium-resort institution. And often it turns out to be right ... So, in the Izvestia sanatorium in Anapa, which also regularly participates (and wins) in tenders for the right to conclude a contract for the provision of sanatorium-resort treatment, "spinal patients" for many years have not had the opportunity to engage in physiotherapy exercises and mechanotherapy, since they simply could not physically get to the exercise therapy room. The fact is that the elevator, with the help of which wheelchair users move to the sanatorium, does not go up to the floor where the exercise therapy hall is located.
“In October 2014, our Foundation gave me a ticket to the Izvestia sanatorium, which I had been waiting for 3 years,” says Evgenia, a resident of Svetlograd (Stavropol Territory) bitterly. - I went there hoping to get medical treatment, do physical education with experienced instructors and, perhaps, learn to move at least a little on my own. What a disappointment it was when it turned out that most of the treatment procedures for wheelchair users were simply not available there, with the exception of some physiotherapy, hydrogen sulfide baths and massage. And the exercise therapy office is on the 5th floor, and I could not get to it, since the elevator runs only until the 4th ... ".
Today, schools need to carry out a variety of social projects. This is due to the fact that love for the world around us must be instilled not only in students, but also in teachers. After reading this article, you will learn more about social projects at school - topics, examples will be presented below.