In recent years, the problem of insufficient concretization of the sustainable tourism paradigm, its low operationalization and instrumentalization in the context of the management of tourism systems of different levels has become generally recognized. The problems and effects of sustainable tourism management are systematized in order to demonstrate their wide practical importance in the development of strategic management solutions in the tourism industry. More than fifty main particular problems are divided into groups in the context of strategic management of tourist systems: macro- and mesoeconomic, microeconomic, institutional, sociocultural and environmental. The main effects of the introduction of sustainable tourism, which must be taken into account in the development of tourist systems, are summarized. There are basic (generally recognized) and additional (more controversial, interpreted in different ways). The specificity of some of the most problematic aspects of sustainable tourism management in the context of the development tasks of the Russian tourism and hospitality industry is revealed. The prospects for sustainable tourism are outlined, which should be taken into account when making strategic decisions.
Ilkevich S. MANAGEMENT PROBLEMS AND EFFECTS OF SUSTAINABLE TOURISM IN THE SECTION OF STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT. Strategic decisions and risk management. 2018; (3): 132-139. . rg/10. 7747/2078-8886-2018-3-132-139
Ilkevich S.. MANAGERIAL PERSPECTIVES AND EFFECTS OF SUSTAINABLE TOURISM FROM STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT PERSPECTIVES. Strategic decisions and risk management. 2018; (3): 132-139. . rg/10. 7747/2078-8886-2018-3-132-139
In recent years, the problem of insufficient concretization of the sustainable tourism paradigm, its low operationalization and instrumentalization in the context of the management of tourism systems of different levels has become generally recognized.
In this article, the terms “sustainable tourism”, “responsible tourism” and “socially responsible tourism” are used as close synonyms. Sustainable tourism can be considered a relatively well-established and recognizable generic term applicable to a general paradigm related to the management of all economic, socio-cultural and ecosystem effects and consequences of tourism development (Fig. 1).
Fig. 1. Correlation of subject areas related to tourism
According to the concept of “enlightened mass tourism” by D. Weaver [Weaver D., 2012], in the early 2000s, a dialectical consensus began to take shape - a synthesis of the best that is in the extreme concepts of previous periods. On the one hand, this is the traditional mass tourism of the 1960s-1970s, when regional economic development proceeded at a maximum pace and negative sociocultural, economic and environmental consequences increased just as quickly, but the latter remained out of focus. On the other hand, there is a conglomerate of alternative types of tourism [Weaver D., 2014], formed in the 1980s-1990s, within which the main consumers should be conscientious persons who are attracted by alternative ecotourism, and volunteer work. However, today it is already obvious that consumers of ecotourism will not save either the culture, or the ecosystem, or the economic structure of local communities from the “asphalt roller” of mass tourism. Educating all those involved in one way or another with tourism generally yields better results than skeptics initially assumed. This applies to both general socio-cultural awareness and everyday consumer behavior (for example, they are willing to pay extra for a service if environmental requirements are met and the cultural authenticity of a place attractive to tourists is preserved) and business models of companies operating in the tourism sector, up to the use of “ green management.
A descriptive approach still prevails with an emphasis on the educational (in a broad sense) value of the concept of sustainable tourism. The crisis situation was reflected in the fact that in the 1990-2000s there were many publications where the authors tried to figure out what sustainable tourism is - an introduced alternative to mass tourism or a marketing ploy to attract responsible tourists with a broad outlook [Lansing R., De Vries P ., 2007]. This kind of criticism turns out to be not entirely adequate due to the fact that in the last decade sustainable tourism has been perceived as a new model for the development of mass tourism, which does not imply confrontation with the established practice. This model provides for a certain flexibility, attention to the limitations in the use of resources and socio-cultural context.
Generalization and classification of applied particular problem areas and characteristic phenomena of sustainable tourism are appropriate for demonstrating the powerful arsenal that can be used in the strategic management of the tourism industry. Through systematization and classification, managers, mediators, analysts and researchers of the tourism and hospitality industry will receive a targeted managerial interpretation of the main factors, typical problems and effects of sustainable tourism development.
On the basis of the literature on this issue, typical problem situations, models and approaches related to ensuring the sustainability of development in the tourism and hospitality industry have been identified and considered. Management issues and the effects of sustainable tourism received conceptual coverage primarily in the Journal of Sustainable Tourism, a leading publication not only in the field of responsible and sustainable tourism, but in general in international tourism research. The publication contains many case studies related to management practice in different industries and different geographic areas. Tourism Management magazine specializes in highlighting management issues in the tourism sector. These two publications account for about half of publications in the field of sustainable tourism management.