Main trends of modern labor migration

International labor migration and its implications in 2020

Since 2010, global population migration has begun. If earlier thousands and tens of thousands of people traveled abroad, now we are talking about millions of people who decided to urgently change their place of residence for political, economic and other reasons. The problem of global migration also worries residents of states where foreigners are actively seeking to get. In this article we will try to give answers to the questions why so many nomads appeared, and also talk about the main centers of international labor migration.

About the causes and factors of the phenomenon

Information about migrants constantly appears in the media. Almost every day we learn that in this or that corner of the earth refugees have not been able to cross the border or, on the contrary, have received the right to be in the territory of the nearest country, to look for housing and work there, to enjoy benefits ... Faced with such information, even distant from politics and economics, people begin to think about the reasons for migration.

As usual, when discussing a problem that is relevant to many people, mentioning one or two factors is indispensable. This turns out to be all the more true if we take into account the total number of people on the planet - already 7.4 billion people. And yet, if we single out the main factors of global migration, they will be as follows:

  • poor economic conditions in "lagging" countries (lack of jobs, low wages, high taxes);
  • excellent prospects that almost any developed country can provide labor emigration (benefits, a sufficient number of jobs, qualified employment);
  • the political reliability of the state, the security of the population who does not want to participate in hostilities;
  • the opportunity to get a better education abroad;
  • demographic factor (hundreds of thousands of people still marry foreigners or marry citizens of other states);
  • freedom of movement - today, with a fairly modest amount, anyone can purchase a ticket for a plane, train, steamer, etc.
  • information factor - in the 21st century, even poor families have TVs, computers and radios, thanks to which you can learn more about the situation in the world and developed countries;
  • lack of resources for a huge population in many countries and, on the contrary, a decline in fertility in others.

Most of these reasons are also relevant for Russians. Moreover, interestingly, the same factor can induce a person both to migrate to the Russian Federation, and, on the contrary, to leave the country and move to Europe or North America (most often these are the directions chosen). For example, Tajiks and Turkmens in Russia are attracted by the opportunity to earn money, stability and political reliability, but the indigenous population can no longer be content with the ratio of wages and prices for food and utilities and leave abroad in search of a better life.

Such contradictions, unfortunately, lead to disappointing forecasts: according to the assurances of sociologists, by 2050 about 112 million people will live in the Russian Federation (now 142 million are located in the country).

Some statistics

The problem of migration in the world is studied by political scientists, economists and sociologists. Therefore, today on the Internet you can find reliable statistical data on the number of migrants (including by groups - labor, refugees, etc.), the attitude of residents of certain states to newcomers, and other data. Thus, the main centers of attraction for migrants are Europe and the United States. Further distribution goes to certain countries (in the case of America, by states).

European country

In proportion to the increase in the global population, labor migration is also growing - in 2021 the number of international migrants, that is, those who left their country in order to find a job in another state, tripled compared to 1970. Moreover, every year there is an increase in this indicator by about 2-3%. Legal and controlled migration of the working-age population is seen as a positive socio-cultural phenomenon.

Key terms and characteristics of modern labor migration

The process of human resource migration involves the movement of an individual from the country in which he was born to the territory of another state. In the event that a person moves for more profitable employment, they talk about labor migration or labor migration. Its subjects are both residents of the country who move to another region, and foreigners who can find employment both legally and illegally.

The following types of labor force migration are distinguished:

  • seasonal - a migrant performs seasonal work in another country (for example, seasonal work in Poland with a biometric passport is now popular);
  • irrevocable - leaving abroad for permanent residence;
  • temporary-permanent - performing professional activities on the territory of the host country for a limited period (work under a contract or project implementation);
  • pendulum - daily crossing the border of another state and returning back to work;
  • illegal - illegal employment in another country;
  • "brain drain" - massive one-way migration of highly qualified specialists (scientists, engineers).

A country that accepts a resident of another state and provides him with a job is usually called a recipient. Labor immigration is the process of entry of foreign citizens for employment. The country that supplies the labor is the donor. Accordingly, able-bodied citizens leaving the donor country are emigrants. Particular details of the terminology on this issue are described in the material "What is immigration and emigration".

Today, labor migration is characterized by:

  • an increase in illegal employment,
  • an increase in material motives;
  • an increase in scientific and technical personnel as subjects migration;
  • an increase in seasonal migrants;
  • an increase in labor migration within countries.

The scale of labor migration is growing from year to year, while the age of able-bodied migrants is gradually getting younger.

Modern labor migrants are young people 20-25 years old, especially from post-socialist countries, who are actively looking for the best options for employment abroad in various fields (mainly in Germany, Poland).

Reasons for modern labor migration

Today, those who are dissatisfied with the level of the country's economy and their financial situation in it most often migrate. Another widespread, economically driven factor of increased labor migration is lingering unemployment in underdeveloped countries. Thus, the main reason pushing people to move people abroad is to find a job in order to improve their living standards.

At the same time, the migration flow is directed to countries with developed industries and economies. For jobs that involve hard physical labor and are not popular with local residents, there will always be those willing from among labor migrants who have arrived from less developed countries.

The main directions of international labor migration are from developing countries to more developed ones, and vice versa. This also includes the movement of citizens within developed and developing countries, and migration from the former socialist republics.

What is migration

Migration is the movement of people from one territory to another. It can be both internal (within one country) and external (when moving to another state). Migration factors can be divided into three main groups:

  • permanent unregulated: geographical features of the area, as well as earthquakes, floods and other natural disasters;
  • temporary: life expectancy in the region, development of territories, availability life infrastructure;
  • regulated: changes in wages, provision of benefits or reorientation of national policies.

Main reasons for migration

As noted above, the motives for resettlement can lie in a wide variety of areas of human life. Let's try to classify the main reasons for population migration.

Economic reasons

When you ask expats why they are moving, the most popular response is a desire to improve their living conditions and quality of life. People are looking for a decent salary and good prospects for their children. These are all economic reasons for migration. They tend to provoke international flows towards countries with more developed economies. An example is the constant movement of the population of Latin America to the United States.

Economic relocation of people is often referred to as labor migration. Cadres usually flow from countries with significant numbers of workers to countries with large amounts of capital.

Moreover, the time of residence in a new country can be from a couple of months to several years. In addition to the USA and Canada, Western Europe and Australia attract labor migrants.

Main economic reasons for labor migration:

  • different economic development of states, which is expressed in levels of wages and social security;
  • different labor force and unequal size of the labor market;
  • the discrepancy between the material and technical basis of the state and the number of workers, their level of education.

It should be noted that the notorious brain drain also refers to migration for economic reasons. Previously, the movement of highly qualified personnel was mainly carried out to developed countries, now the tendency of movement of specialists to developing countries prevails, where global corporations open new branches (transnational enterprises).

For centuries, people have been looking for the most profitable and comfortable living conditions, employment, development and realization of their own capabilities. World practice shows that the governments of different countries are intensively exchanging information, finances, experience, as well as labor. Such cooperation leads to various consequences, both positive and negative. International labor migration is a phenomenon that has been known to the world for centuries. The first massive and voluntary movement of manpower dates back to the nineteenth century.

Labor migration peaked after World War II. People, crushed by the war, began en masse to look for ways to earn money and restore ordinary life. Countries with stronger and more developed economies attracted foreigners from all over the world. Some powers deliberately created favorable migration conditions in order to attract foreign labor. Today, there are also profitable professional migration programs in the world. Each state establishes its own rules and requirements for applicants, but there are a number of common features of applicants - average age (from 35 to 45 years), availability of a profession in demand, knowledge of the language, no criminal record and negative reputation, etc.

International labor migration is a complex and confusing branch of law. Not everyone can understand it, in order to fully understand the basics of the sphere, it is most effective to enlist the support of an experienced lawyer. Experts know the legislation of different countries, the advantages of moving and finding a job in each of them, therefore they will be able to provide competent assistance in choosing the direction of migration. To get reliable, practical advice from professionals, today you do not need to spend time and money on a paid lawyer, it is enough to contact our online lawyers. The consultants will treat each issue individually and will help citizens understand what international labor migration implies and what its significance is.

World experience in the field of labor migration

After 1945, European countries were devastated and exhausted. At the same time, capitalism was developing intensively in America, and the country needed an influx of people. It was the United States that became the first country where Europeans and residents of the then Soviet Russia left for work en masse. Here, there is still a stable growth of migrants every year, it is the foreigners that determine the high population growth of the American state. Labor migration here is popular and in demand for many foreigners, therefore, strict control over illegal immigrants has been introduced in America. The most acute problem is the illegal migration of Mexicans to the United States.

The second country where international labor migration is actively developed is Canada. The largest Slavic diaspora has been created in this state today. People from Russia, Ukraine, Belarus and other post-Soviet countries who moved here many years ago, support the traditions and culture of their historical homeland, help inexperienced migrants settle down. Labor migrants to Canada can be divided into two large groups - highly qualified specialists in demanded professions and low-paid labor force. The third direction, where experts from Russia willingly go, is Australia and New Zealand.

State regulation of the migration direction of these powers after the Second World War was aimed at attracting Europeans and thereby solving demographic, as well as socio-economic problems. These countries can be called the most ancient centers of labor migration.

Several decades ago, a new direction was opened, where every third labor migrant is sent - the countries of Western Europe. The development and strengthening of the EU's position, a stable economy and a high level of social guarantees attracted residents of Russia and other CIS countries here.

Reasons for labor migration in the world and in Russia

International labor migration always has good reasons. For most, the reasons for moving to permanent residence abroad and looking for work in a foreign country are individual. Despite this, general trends and reasons for migration can be identified. Among the main options are:

  • Economic. When unemployment rises in a country, inflation rises, the quality of life rises in price, citizens suffer in the first place. Often people cannot feed their families because the labor market is in decline. In order to be able to survive, citizens of Russia, Kazakhstan, Belarus, Ukraine, etc., decide to emigrate abroad, where they can find a job and earn enough money.
  • Political. Often, the country's authorities themselves force their subjects to go abroad in search of a better life. World practice shows that citizens who are persecuted because of their own religious, national, professional and political interests seek to find another country where they can freely realize themselves and live without infringing on their rights.
  • Military. Armed conflicts, terrorist attacks, attacks - all this is a reason for citizens to move abroad, because the lives of civilians are in danger. In the conditions of hostilities in the country there is no opportunity to earn money, since the majority of the male capable population is employed in the conflict. The economic life of a state or region comes to a standstill, forcing them to look for ways to survive.
  • Environmental. Labor migration can also occur for environmental reasons. If significant violations in the environment or climate are noted in the country, a man-made disaster has occurred, and the region has become uninhabitable, people have a choice of future life and development. Citizens in such a situation rarely want to stay in this country and decide to try their luck in a foreign country.

There are a lot of people who want to move to Russia today. Migration processes have not spared the Russian Federation, which is an integral part of the modern world. International experts admit that Russian immigration laws are quite perfect. At the same time, they often remember that they are at the same time difficult for a person to understand, who is not privy to their subtleties and nuances. Russia today is experiencing an influx of migrants from various countries. The aggravation of the foreign policy situation plays a significant role in increasing the number of foreigners who move to the Russian Federation. We should not forget about the interests of foreign business, as well as the close family ties that Russians have with residents of most of the CIS republics. All of these factors contribute to an increase in immigration.

Immigration to Russia: the main ways

Immigration to Russia has national, political, economic and family reasons. Depending on the reason that prompted a foreign citizen to leave his homeland and move to Russia, the conditions for obtaining the status of a temporary or permanent resident of the Russian Federation will differ significantly. There are several main reasons why a foreigner can legally settle for a long time on Russian soil:

  • moving to close relatives;
  • employment and doing business in Russia;
  • training in a Russian educational institution;
  • marriage with a Russian citizen;
  • immigration for scientists, artists and other artists;
  • employment of highly qualified specialists in professions in demand in Russia;
  • immigration of persons with the status refugee.

There are several more ways to go to live in the Russian Federation, which are used less often than those indicated above.

Video: rules for entry and exit of foreigners in the Russian Federation

Moving to relatives in Russia

Family immigration programs exist in almost every country in the world. Residents of the post-Soviet space continue to be linked by close family ties. The borders have divided brothers, children and parents. The natural desire to reunite families makes moving to close relatives in Russia one of the most demanded ways of immigration. It should be noted that we are talking exclusively about close relatives. Such legislation recognizes children and parents, siblings, as well as grandfathers and grandmothers. So uncles, aunts, and cousins ​​and cousins ​​don't count. In this case, relatives must be citizens of Russia.

In this case, when filling out a migration card while crossing the Russian border, you must indicate the address, name and surname of a close relative with whom the immigrant is going to settle.

A foreigner who receives a temporary residence permit in Russia has the right to take his family with him.

Conditions of employment of foreign citizens in Russia

The level of wages in Russia makes work in Russian companies and projects attractive for residents of most post-Soviet republics. In addition, labor migrants have a wide geographical choice in employment in Russia (in the status of permanent residents), since an immigrant can find a worthy application of his knowledge and skills in any of the regions of the country. Of course, Moscow and large cities are especially attractive in terms of employment.

The vast Russian expanses have always attracted to themselves

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