Khrabovchenko V

Khrabovchenko V

CHAPTER Human Resource Management in Ecotourism

As you can see from the previous chapters, in ecotourism, the staff, and above all the guides, are the most important factor in the success of a trip.

The modern development of tourism and hospitality is based on natural, socio-economic, cultural and historical and, of course, labor resources. Tourism as a field of activity was created by people and for people, because hospitality is inherent only in them. No other resource, artificial mechanism can replace hospitality, for the reason that it is a feeling that we experience in relation to other people. That is why people and human resources will always be the main resource for tourism development.

The degree of mechanization of labor in industry is extremely low compared to industries. Managing people today is an obligatory and most important component of the management of any tourist organization, along with the management of material (office equipment, rooms, etc. ") and natural (resort areas, natural monuments, etc.) resources.

Labor resources are significantly different from other types of resources, therefore, require special management methods. The specificity of human resources in tourism and hospitality is as follows:

1) people come to the field of tourism, travel agencies consciously and with specific goals and aspirations. They expect help in self-realization. Often they are attracted by the nature of the industry itself, material privileges, a career, for example, where did you see a fax that dreams of becoming a "senior fax" ?; 2) unlike machines and raw materials, the reaction of people to management, external influence is emotionally meaningful. A tourism manager is constantly in one of two states: either helping the organization's work, or hindering it. He can come to work hungry, not sleeping enough and therefore be irritable, rude with employees and guests. An experienced manager can motivate staff in the results of work, motivate, inspire to achieve the set task. It is in the field of tourism and hospitality that this aspect of the human factor of development is especially pronounced; 3) people, like no other resource, are capable of self-improvement and self-development, becoming more experienced, professional, and better. The same cannot be said about other development resources.

Here are some of the main aspects of attitudes towards staff and their qualifications:

- treat people more as a resource than a cost of wages; - support teamwork by encouraging all employees to implement the firm's development strategy; - Arrange public meetings to motivate employees to complete current business tasks; - regularly repeat training programs for employees, especially in the field of improving the quality of service; - conduct education and training of employees not only during working hours, but (if necessary) and during rest, in order to improve their professional level; - Encourage employees to self-improve their qualifications; - Evaluate learning abilities to see how well employees understand the challenges of tour operators and build on them.

Qualified and trained staff raises the level of professionalism of the company in the eyes of consumers and helps to convince them of the high quality of service. This applies to all employees, but first of all to the cafes working in the sales area, accommodation and room service, guides. These people are most in contact with tourists, therefore, in the eyes of the latter, they are the “face” of the company. Abroad, this category of workers is united by the term "front-office", or "front-line", emphasizing their position at the forefront of the competition for tourists. Guides are by far the main striking force of the “front office” of an adventure and ecotourism company, and their ability to convince the client that a tour is safe and attractive is crucial.

Relationship of personnel management with the strategy and structure of a travel company

The purpose of personnel management planning (workforce planning) is to cover the need for human resources necessary to achieve the strategic development goals of a tourism organization. Thus, the planning of personnel management is influenced by the development strategy of the organization and the structure of the travel agency. With the help of the strategy, it is determined: the quantitative and qualitative composition of the necessary human resources, i.e. when, what and how many workers will be required. Personnel planning determines how and where the firm will get employees and how to organize their effective work.

Strategic management in ecotourism is management that relies on natural and human resources as the basis for sustainable tourism development; orients the activities of the travel agency to the needs of guests and local residents; timely responds to changes in the tourist market and other characteristics of the external environment, which together allows you to achieve the strategic development goal of the travel agency.

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