Interethnic conflicts and methods of their settlement

The five most famous territorial disputes in history

Interethnic (interethnic) conflict is any form of manifestation of contradictions between national communities, ethnic groups, expressed in their confrontation, confrontation. Its occurrence is due to a clash of interests, motives, views, actions and the lack of a timely solution that satisfies all parties.


To create a conflict situation, you need a reason, a reason, the presence of an object of confrontation. Causes of interethnic conflicts:

  • territorial conflicts;
  • struggle for natural resources;
  • historical tensions;
  • oppression of peoples and nations on social, linguistic, confessional grounds;
  • separatism - the desire of an individual people to leave the multinational state and create its own.

Based on the nature of mutual claims, the following types of interethnic conflicts are distinguished:

  • state-legal - arises as a result of the nation's aspiration for self-determination, its own statehood;
  • ethno-territorial - it is caused by a dispute over the ownership of certain territories; <
  • ethno-demographic - associated with fears of the assimilation of an ethnic group, accompanied by demands to protect the rights of the indigenous people and their socio-cultural status;
  • socio-economic - is a consequence of the dissatisfaction of an ethnic group with their status, associated with the requirements of social equality ;
  • socio-psychological - arises between the indigenous population and migrants against the background of a violation of the traditional way of life.

Interethnic conflicts often serve as an amplifier or barrier in political or economic confrontation. The means of confrontation are:

  • economic, political pressure;
  • "information wars";
  • terrorist activities;
  • armed clashes;
  • means of diplomacy.

The development of an interethnic conflict always occurs according to a certain scenario, knowledge of which can help the parties to control the situation, direct it in the right direction. Phases of interethnic conflict:

  • Latent - manifests itself in latent interethnic tension, lack of tolerance in interethnic relations;
  • Pre-conflict - characterized by the formation of hostile relationships, an increase in the number of domestic conflicts on ethnic grounds; <
  • The conflict is the culmination, the most acute moment in the development of unfavorable interethnic relations;
  • The denouement is the resolution of the conflict or its aggravation.
  • Recession - freezing or extinction of the conflict.

Despite the fact that the colonial era of wars for plots of land is far in the past, dozens of conflicts over territorial affiliation still remain unresolved in the world. Below is a list of five of the most famous controversies.


(Israel and the Palestinian Authority)

The world's main territorial dispute will soon turn 70 years old.

The Israeli state was created with the consent of the United Nations on the ancestral lands of the Jews, in Palestine. However, Muslim Arabs have lived in these lands and in the neighborhood for more than a thousand years. They were not enthusiastic about the emergence of a sovereign state in the neighborhood, since they considered Palestine their own.

A national-religious conflict broke out pretty soon, in which Israel was opposed by a coalition of Arab states. Despite the unequal forces of the parties, the Jews turned out to be stronger on the battlefield and took control of some neighboring areas that did not belong to the borders of their state: the Golan Heights, the Gaza Strip, and the western bank of the Jordan.

Arab states are trying to challenge the actions of Tel Aviv in these lands. The dispute periodically escalates and enters the phase of clashes.


The problem of the Kashmir region arose when the British Empire granted independence to its Indian colonies. The region of Kashmir, the majority of whose population is Muslim, was almost completely transferred under the control of India. Pakistan actively supports fellow Kashmiri separatists.

Territory has already fought three wars, however, the dispute is still unresolved. In Kashmir, the situation is periodically aggravated, there are acts of terrorism and clashes between the Indian army and separatists.


(Serbia and the Republic of Kosovo)

The Kosovo region was originally a Serbian territory. However, during the Turkish rule, many Muslims emigrated here, who began to consider these lands their homeland. A conflict on racial and religious grounds was brewing after the First World War, but then it was avoided thanks to the creation of Yugoslavia. With the disintegration of this multinational country, the problem was again exposed. Belgrade tried to maintain control over the region, but the states of the North Atlantic Alliance and Albania sided with the Kosovars.

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