Annotation. The innovative development of enterprises in the tourism industry is a complex process in which both citizens - consumers of services, and government authorities, travel companies and enterprises of the tourism industry are involved, whose activities are regulated by the relevant regulatory legal acts. When creating favorable factors of the internal and external environment, the enterprise of the tourism industry has all the necessary conditions for the innovative development of the tourism industry.
Key words: tourism industry, innovation, internal and external environment of an enterprise, innovative development of an enterprise, marketing, services.
The widespread introduction of innovative products, services and technologies into the economic circulation has become a key factor in socio-economic development and improving the quality of life of the population. In a market environment, innovations should contribute to the dynamic development of the economy, ensure the accelerated introduction of the latest achievements of science and technology into production, and more fully satisfy the needs of the population in a variety of high-quality and competitive goods and services.
Innovation in the tourism industry has a particularly important role to play. World practice shows that tourism is second only to oil and gas production and processing in terms of profitability and dynamic development. Tourism is one of the most important sectors of the economy of many developed and developing countries, it is one of the main sources of income, foreign exchange earnings in the economy.
According to the World Tourism Organization (WTO), tourism accounts for about 6% of the world's gross national product, 7% of world consumer spending, 5% of all tax revenues. By 2020, the number of international tourist trips will increase to 1.6 billion, that is, almost 3 times, and revenues from the sale of tourism products will amount to about 2 trillion. US dollars per year . Therefore, in Russia more attention should be paid to the development of the tourism industry. According to WTO estimates, the potential of the Russian Federation makes it possible to receive up to 40 million foreign tourists a year at an appropriate level of development of the tourism industry .
Analysis of the role and place of Russia in international trade in services has shown that the service sector, including tourism, is in its infancy and its share in the world economy is insignificant - about 1% . For comparison, it can be noted that the share of France in the global flow of arrivals is 10.7%, Spain - 7.2%, USA - 6.4%, PRC - 5.5% .
The state's innovation policy is aimed at creating favorable conditions for the development of the tourism industry and meeting the tourist needs of the population in every possible way, creating new competitive products and services, and introducing modern management technologies. Moreover, the development of innovations is necessary both at the state level and at the level of the tourist organizations themselves. It is innovative growth that leads to the creation and implementation of new or improved products and services, the improvement of not only the enterprises of the tourism industry, but also the industry, as well as related industries.
Tourism organizations in a market economy are increasingly aware of the need to develop new products and services and the associated economic benefits. However, not all companies put innovation into practice. After all, innovative activity is characterized by a high level of uncertainty and risk, the complexity of predicting the final results. But with a competent approach to creation and implementation, innovation can bring considerable income and considerable benefit.
Innovative development of enterprises in the tourism industry is the development and creation of new tourist routes, products, services, technologies using the achievements of science, technology, IT-technologies, as well as advanced experience in the field of management and marketing, the implementation of which will allow to increase the employment of the population, to ensure the growth of its income, to increase the socio-economic development and tourist attractiveness of the country and the region
It should be noted that the innovative development of enterprises in the tourism industry depends on changes in the factors of the internal and external environment. Factors of the external and internal environment interact with each other and depend on the specific socio-economic conditions of development within the country, region, enterprise. At the macro level (at the level of a region, a country), external factors for the development of the tourism industry are formed; they can be conditionally divided into two groups: statistical and dynamic. The statistical group of external factors includes: natural and climatic, geographical, cultural and historical. The group of dynamic factors includes political and legal, socio-demographic, financial and economic, material and technical.
Natural resources are the basis of the tourist offer in the region and the country. These include natural landscapes, mountains, seas, rivers and lakes, a comfortable climate, mineral waters and healing mud. The attractiveness of holiday destinations and the development of certain types of tourism are undoubtedly determined primarily by these factors.
The innovative development of a region is a process of a socio-economic nature, aimed at the formation of an innovation system in the region (RIS). RIS includes industrial enterprises, financial organizations, educational and research institutions, special economic zones, consulting, leasing engineering companies, business incubators, etc. Such a complex is capable of increasing the scientific and technological potential of the territory and realizing it through the creation of science-intensive industries using high technologies.
Each Russian region approaches the solution of the tasks of creating and developing RIS taking into account its own specifics. Therefore, the regional policy in this direction will be different. The choice of a model for innovative development is determined by the scientific, technical, economic and cultural characteristics of the territory. Today, the following methods of managing the development of RIS are most widely used:
The listed methods are combined depending on regional conditions.
In the process of transition to a post-industrial type of economy, the constituent entities of the Russian Federation solve the following tasks:
The progress of the processes of scientific and technological growth in the regions is most often characterized through the description of the innovation cycle. The innovation cycle is a model that characterizes the path of innovation from mastering knowledge to consuming a finished product. All stages interact closely with each other and cannot be excluded from consideration.
One of the first successful models of the innovation cycle was a linear model describing the sequence of stages from the development of a scientific idea to its implementation in finished products. The classic cycle of innovation: fundamental research - applied research - development and development - production. Each stage corresponds to strictly defined organizational structures that ensure its functioning.
Chabanyuk Oleg Vasilievich Candidate of Economic Sciences, Associate Professor, Professor of RMAT, Head. Department of Tourism and Hospitality, Deputy. Director for Scientific and Methodological Work Russia, Resurrection Institute of Tourism Chabanuk_oleg @ mail. u
Ryabtseva Irina Aleksandrovna 4th year student of the field of training: Personnel Management Russia, Resurrection Institute of Tourism
The technological approach in the study of the problems of innovative management is multi-stage and sequential. The article highlights the principles and types of using the technological approach in innovative management. In modern Russia, choosing innovative projects, they rely on "Methodological recommendations for assessing the effectiveness of investment projects", which have the status of an official publication. But in tourist practice, this document revealed a number of limitations. In addition, due to the lack of a sectoral methodology for investment projects, when using the technological approach, the author justifies the need to take into account the systemic strategy of intervention when forming a package of innovations. In the article, the author gives a model of influence on the innovation component of tourism by state policy and highlight those directions of state policy that are associated with a technological approach to innovation management. Since tourism is one of the priority sectors of the economy, it is proposed to create a center under the government of the Russian Federation for processing innovative issues of the tourism region, which would contribute to the successful implementation of state policy in this area. The work of such a center could combine the whole range of scientific approaches to managing the development of innovations (creating a portfolio of innovations, etc.), which would have a methodological basis. The article provides a list of innovations from the standpoint of individual successfully developing firms in the Russian market that are currently implementing or intending to implement innovations, as well as the results of the analysis of the process of forming an innovative complex of tourist organizations using a technological approach based on the method of expert assessments (taking into account personal qualities of experts based on the results of the survey).
innovation; innovative activity; innovative complex; innovative management; portfolio of innovations; development; technological approach; tourist organization; tourism; stage.
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An innovative complex (or portfolio of innovations) of tourism is a set of innovations necessary for implementation into the tourism system in order to achieve the set goals and increase the effectiveness of its activities.
In a broad sense, the formation of an innovative complex is being transformed into the task of adapting the management system to the rapid and accurate determination of directions for increasing the competitiveness of tourism organizations to changes in the competitive environment. In the absence of purposeful and constant work, once achieved successes in innovative activities in the market, after a while, will be canceled by the retaliatory actions of competitors. Therefore, it is necessary to form the management of innovations in such a way as to ensure the adaptation process and, on an ongoing basis, create conditions for the effective development of the tourism system.
The success of innovation management is directly related to the development of methodology for solving relevant problems. In innovation management, thirty scientific approaches are used [12, p. 109]. With the activation of the intellect of all participants, real positive results of innovative management are achieved, although scientific approaches are equally important. Therefore, in the management of tourism innovations, the implementation of a technological approach is of great importance.
The scale and impact of change, the involvement of information and human resources, are becoming more unpredictable and diverse. The implementation of one or several previously developed approaches (normative, functional, etc.) leads to an excessive waste of managers' efforts and resources, to incomplete achievement of the set goals. Therefore, the prospects for the development of innovative management should be associated with the improvement of technologies for its research. Technologization of the innovation management process includes: step-by-step coordination of the participants' actions aimed at achieving the innovation goal; unambiguous understanding and execution of compound operations and procedures; dividing the process into internally logically related steps, procedures; as well as the development and use of a certain set of techniques and methods for solving specific innovative problems. The process of forming an innovative complex is considered as part of the mechanism of innovative management.
The technological approach in the study of the problems of innovative management is multi-stage and sequential. At the first stage, the real state of the innovation system is investigated. The criticism of the real state of the innovation system is carried out at the second stage. Finding "difficult places" in the development of the management system is facilitated by the translation of a specific description of activity into a generalized (abstract), which formulates the direction of the ways to overcome. At the third stage, a change in the norms of the management system takes place, a certain set of adjustments to the management system are being developed, which overcome "difficult places".
A complex management decision is the result of the implementation of a technological approach, which is a type of interpersonal professional communication, and also contributes to the solution of the assigned tasks, activating the intellectual potential of the participants.
The principles of using the technological approach in innovative management are:
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