Cultural environment

Cultural environment

Cultural environment

The cultural environment is a social phenomenon, its formation requires a social situation, which is formed only as a result of contacts between people. But it is not the result of cumulative interaction and communication. In everyday life, communication and interaction can be playful, situational, normative, deviant.

The cultural environment is culture, but considered in its spatial embodiment; it is a complex of preferences of the population, concentrated within the boundaries of a certain space. These cultural preferences are manifested in the social behavior of people.

The development of the cultural environment was a long process, and there is no exact date of its origin and formation. But, despite this, the chronological boundaries are quite clear. If we assume that man arose about 40 thousand years ago (according to new data - 80 thousand years ago), then the first elements of cultural interaction arose about 150 thousand years ago. And since by culture we mean, first of all, spiritual manifestations, then this very date is more acceptable. That is, in other words, culture is much older than man. During this period of time, the process of formation and evolution of the human cultural environment was going on.

Five large periods of the formation of the cultural environment are conventionally distinguished:

• First. It began 150 thousand years ago and ended in the 4th millennium BC. This is the culture of primitive man or the period of infancy of mankind. A person learns to speak, but does not yet know how to write. He builds the first dwellings - a cave. Man creates the first works of art: sculpture, painting, drawings, the main feature of which is naivety. At this time, the first religious cults were formed. For example, the cult of the dead, rituals associated with hunting and burial. The man saw a miracle in everything, everything that surrounded him seemed to him magical and mysterious. Even the surrounding objects were perceived by him as living, which is why a person established close ties with them. • The second period from the 4th millennium BC to the 5th century AD. This is the most fruitful stage in the evolution of human culture. It develops on the basis of civilization, has not only a magical, but also a mythological character, since mythology begins to play a fundamental role in it, in which, together with fantasy, there is a rational kernel. The main cultural centers are Ancient Egypt, China and India, Mesopotamia, Ancient Rome and Greece, the peoples of America. All these centers were distinguished by their originality and made a significant contribution to the development of the culture of mankind. This is the period of the emergence and development of mathematics, philosophy, medicine, astronomy. Sculpture, architecture, and bas-relief achieve classical forms. • Third period (V-XIV centuries). This is the culture of the Middle Ages, the time of the dawn of religions - Buddhism, Christianity, Islam. This is the period of the first crisis of the self-consciousness of mankind. At this time, along with the already existing civilizations, new ones appear: Western Europe, Byzantium, Kievan Rus. China and Byzantium became the leading cultural centers of this period. Religion has intellectual and spiritual domination over man. • The fourth period covers the XV-XVI centuries and is called the Renaissance. This period is typical mainly for European countries. This is a transitional time from the Middle Ages to the New Age. It is characterized by profound changes. Humanism becomes the main idea, faith in God gives way to faith in reason and in man. The highest value in society becomes a person's life and himself. All genres of art are experiencing unprecedented flourishing. This is the era of great geographical discoveries, discoveries in astronomy, anatomy. • The fifth period begins in the middle of the 17th century. This is the period of the birth of natural science, science, intellect, reason become the main human values. This is the era of capitalism and the expansion of Western European culture to other continents and to the East.

The cultural environment has been the subject of philosophical analysis since antiquity. But the issue acquired particular urgency in the 19th century, when human culture became associated with the socio-political, legal, economic and moral problems of the peoples of Western Europe, who claimed to be the first in the world.

At this time, two points of view on culture were formed:

• One sees it as a means of ennobling a person, transforming him into a creative, harmonious personality, a bearer of the grain of civilization. • The second point of view considers culture as a means that turns a person into a submissive obedient instrument.

The cultural environment consists of four components:

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