The article examines the role of coordination in the development of tourism and increasing the socio-economic efficiency of tourism activities. Defines the concept of "coordination" in relation to tourism activities. The levels of coordination in tourism are considered: global (international), national, regional (local). The definition of the concept "coordination mechanism for increasing the socio-economic efficiency of tourist activity" is given. Its practical manifestation in the regions of the Baikal region (Irkutsk region and the Republic of Buryatia) is considered, demonstrating that, despite the presence in these tourist destinations of public and private institutions capable of coordinating the sphere of recreation and tourism, the action of coordination mechanisms in these regions is different. That is, the effective coordination of tourist activities presupposes not only the presence of forms of coordination, but also some attributes that make it possible to characterize the used coordination mechanism as effective. The attributes of an effective coordination mechanism are determined, which include: the ability of the central coordinating link to coordinate the goals, business processes and actions of the subjects of the sphere of recreation and tourism; the presence of a unified information system that determines the method of obtaining and distributing information among the subjects of the sphere of recreation and tourism; adequate organizational structure of the central coordinating link; general strategy for the formation of relationships between the subjects of the sphere of recreation and tourism; availability of a coordination monitoring system; informal relationships. The analysis of the correspondence of coordination mechanisms for increasing the socio-economic efficiency of tourist activity in the Irkutsk region and the Republic of Buryatia to the attributes of effective is carried out. It is concluded that in order to increase the socio-economic efficiency of tourist activity, it is important not only to have a coordination mechanism as such, but also to match it with the attributes of an effective one.
Key words: coordination, coordination mechanism, socio-economic efficiency, tourism activities, tourism.
Currently, coordination is assigned a key role in the sustainable development of the field of recreation and tourism. In particular, the 13th UNCTAD (United Nations Trade and Development Organization) Conference “Towards Inclusive and Sustainable Growth and Development: The Potential Contribution of the Tourism Sector” held in Qatar in April 2012, highlighted the importance of giving tourism processes an organized nature, the need to coordinate the actions of its constituent organizations. According to the summary of the conference, “an approach to tourism development that involves coordinating the actions of its constituent entities to ensure openness of all channels of communication and facilitate the exchange of information and knowledge” was named among other tourism .
By the coordination of tourism activities, we mean sustainable communication leading to the coordination of actions of state, public and private structures (directly and indirectly related to the sphere of recreation and tourism) on the development and implementation of methods, mechanisms and tools for influencing legal, economic , social and other nature in order to increase the socio-economic efficiency of tourism, ensure sustainable development of tourism, meet domestic and external demand for tourism services and goods with the rational use of the available tourism potential .
There are several hierarchical levels of coordination of tourism activities: global (international), national, regional (local). Each level is characterized by a specific content, a set of principles and priorities, a legal framework, specific implementation mechanisms and other attributes.
International coordination of tourism activities is carried out by the World Tourism Organization (UNWTO), an intergovernmental organization created under the auspices of the United Nations in 1975 on the basis of the International Union of Official Tourism Organizations to coordinate the actions of the world community in order to develop tourism. UNWTO develops international tourism programs and forecasts, organizes specialized conferences and seminars, conducts research in the field of tourism, publishes statistical, analytical, methodological materials, participates in the training of highly qualified tourist personnel. Along with the UNWTO, other international organizations, directly or indirectly, are involved in the formation and implementation of global tourism policy: the United Nations Organization (UN), the World Trade Organization (WTO), the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), the International Labor Organization (ILO), International Civil Aviation Organization, United Nations Environment Program, World Health Organization (WHO), Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development, European Union, etc.
Coordination of tourism activities at the national level can be carried out through several models. The first model assumes the absence of a central state tourist administration - all issues are resolved locally on the basis of the principles of market self-organization. The governments of individual countries make such a decision in cases where tourism is not a significant sector of the economy for the country, or when the subjects of the tourism market are conscious, i.e. able to solve their problems without government participation. In particular, this management model is used in the United States (in 1997, the USTTA state structure in charge of tourism was liquidated in the United States). The country's leadership decided to do this for a number of reasons: reduction of federal budget expenditures; the presence of a strong position of the United States in the international tourism market; attractiveness of the country for foreign tourists; the presence of strong private companies in the tourism industry, capable of powerful independent advertising campaigns in the interests of the entire national market [1,2].
The second model provides for a strong and authoritative ministry that oversees the activities of the entire industry. For its implementation, certain conditions are required, namely: large financial investments in the tourism industry, advertising and marketing activities, investment in tourism infrastructure. A similar model of coordination by the tourism industry is common in Turkey, Egypt, Tunisia and other countries where tourism is one of the main sources of foreign exchange earnings.
The third model (prevalent in European countries) is that the development of tourism in the country is resolved at the level of a diversified ministry. Most often this is a ministry with an economic bias. At the same time, the department of the ministry that deals with tourism issues operates in two directions: resolves global issues of state regulation (development of a regulatory framework, coordination of regional activities, international cooperation at the interstate level, processing of statistical information) and carries out marketing activities, participation in exhibitions , management of tourist offices abroad .
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