2020 is declared the Year of Folk Art in Russia. However, already now, for the first time in a long time, attention is paid to the folk craft industry at the federal level.
Of the 123 non-commercial projects that received support this year within the framework of the national project "Culture", 51 are related to folk art or folk art crafts. Olga Yurkova, head of the department for regional development and priority projects of the Ministry of Culture of the Russian Federation, believes that participation in such events is necessary primarily for remote regions, and encourages them to get involved in the work as actively as possible.
"Being in Moscow, you don't always understand and see what is needed in a particular region. Therefore, of course, there must be an initiative from below, so we accept applications in principle from all non-profit organizations, in whatever they were not part of the country, "the head of the department explained.
According to her, the main thing in the application for participation in the national project is the productive part.
"It already depends on them: how they (their initiative. - Ed.) will present it, how it is framed. And, of course, a lot of attention is paid to how it will be implemented on the ground. there is so that it is not in vain, so that the result that is expected from this event is still there.Not just meet, communicate and disperse, but that specific decisions are made, after which there would be some actions in this or in a different direction, "Yurkova emphasized.
One of the first events within the framework of the national project, popularizing folk crafts, was a design project competition and a thematic panel discussion "Gzhel 2.. Yesterday - today - tomorrow", which were recently held in the rural settlement of Gzhel within the framework of the national project "Culture". Aleksey Baranov, curator of the competition and head of the Design and Craft Department of the Union of Designers of Russia, believes that the most obvious format for such craft industries today is an art cluster.
"Every day in different formats we discuss what a modern Russian handicraft cluster should be. Both in the union and just at work we come across different options, we study them, this is on the agenda in fact, one might say, now one of the programs in the Union of Designers that we are developing is how the cluster should look like. Some model that we want to propose at the level of municipalities, governors, and so on, "Baranov said.
He admitted that there is no working model of such a cluster in the country yet, but there are positive examples of uniting folk crafts artels to produce popular modern products.
From time immemorial in Russia in the life of the Russian people an important place was occupied by a special form of creativity - "craft" or "crafts". She combined the production of everyday household items with highly artistic methods of making and decorating them. In Russian crafts, the whole variety of historical, spiritual and cultural traditions of our people is displayed, some of which originated centuries ago. Products of Russian crafts express the distinctive features and uniqueness of Russian traditional culture. Researchers refer to Russian folk crafts as painting dishes and other household items, clay and wooden toys, lace-making, pottery, blacksmithing, and more.
Since ancient times, dishes and other household items made of ceramics have been widely known in Russia. One of the most famous settlements in Russia, whose inhabitants were engaged in the manufacture of ceramic porcelain dishes, is Gzhel (now the city is located on the territory of the Ramensky district of the Moscow region). Since the 17th century, or even earlier, Gzhel has been the most famous center for the manufacture of porcelain and ceramics. The products of local craftsmen are sold throughout Russia. It should be noted that in the old days this city was one of the centers of the Old Believers-priests. The flourishing of Gzhel fell on the time of the activity of the "Partnership for the production of porcelain and faience products M. Kuznetsov "at the end of the XIX - beginning of the XX century.
Ceramic dishes from Gzhel
The formation of the usual Gzhel color palette falls on the beginning of the 19th century. Researchers point out that since the 1820s, an increasing number of Gzhel items were painted white and painted exclusively with blue paint. Nowadays, painting made in blue is a characteristic feature of Gzhel products. The popularity of such dishes turned out to be so great that similar products began to be created in other localities, but had a similar blue and white ornament. There were also many fakes.
Tea set from Gzhel
Experts argue that only author's works can be called authentic Gzhel products, which formed the familiar style of Gzhel in the 80s of the XX century. These are the works of such artists as Azarova, Denisov, Neplyuev, Fedorovskaya, Oleinikov, Tsaregorodtsev, Podgornaya, Garanin, Simonov and others. Each of these craftsmen puts a personal signature or stamp on the product of the company they work for. If the master is an employee of the enterprise, then his products are transferred to the production workshop for the purpose of replication.
In the middle of the 18th century in the Urals, where the Demidovs' metallurgical plants were located, a new type of industry was born. Local craftsmen began to paint metal trays. It is interesting that such workshops appeared in cities where a large part of the population was made up of Old Believers, who still have prayer houses and temples there. These are Nizhny Tagil, Nevyansk and Vyysk, founded in 1722. This is how the so-called Tagil trays appeared. The industrialists Demidovs, who oversaw this craft, were very concerned about the quality and artistic value of the products. With the aim of teaching and training professional personnel, they founded a school in 1806. The historical style of Tagil trays was created thanks to this school and its most authoritative teacher - a graduate of the Imperial Academy of Arts V. Albychev.
Tray with Zhostovo painting
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