Ethnographic tourism and its development in Russia and the world

Ethnographic tourism and its development in Russia and the world

According to UNESCO, ethnographic tourism is the most effective way to establish peace and understanding between residents of different countries. This concept in the domestic theory of tourism is still only comprehended. While in practice tours are already being organized, objects are being created that make it possible to understand the characteristics of different cultures and peoples. Let's talk about what is meant by the concept of ethnographic tourism, what is its specificity and what are the prospects for development in the world and in Russia. We will also give examples of how this type of tourism is organized in different countries.

The concept of ethnographic tourism

The need for studying the origin of peoples, their characteristics, traditions, and language has long been inherent in mankind. Ethnography is engaged in all this - a science that has grown within the framework of history. Travel has always been a way for people to learn about the world, find better places to live, a means of interacting with other cultures and peoples. It is from the need to learn more about the world around us that ethnographic tourism appears. The definition of this concept is still at the stage of finalization. In general, it means a special type of tourism in order to get acquainted with the peculiarities of the life of peoples living today or earlier in certain territories. This type of tourism is based on the genuine interest of tourists in the life of people in other countries, in their traditions. In the modern world, the processes of national self-identification of peoples are intensifying. The growing globalization increases the desire of people to realize their uniqueness, belonging to certain ethnic groups. People have an increased interest in their own roots. All this leads to an increase in tourist trips in order to study the way of life of the peoples of their own and foreign countries.

Ethnic or Ethnographic

Two terms can be found in articles about tourism: ethnic and ethnographic tourism. The difference between these phenomena can be found if you analyze these lexemes. Ethnic is referring to any nation, to its origin. And ethnographic is related to the science that studies the origin of peoples, their traditions and culture. That is, ethnic tourism is a type of tourism that is associated with the cognition of ethnic groups, and ethnographic tourism is with the inspection of objects that were created or discovered in the process of studying ethnic groups. By and large, the difference between these terms is minimal. There is a point of view that ethnic tourism is more focused on ethno-linguistic and cultural components. However, such a division of terms has not yet been accepted in widespread use. Therefore, in speech, they are usually used as synonymous concepts. In this article, we will also use these terms interchangeably.

Relevance of ethno-tourism

The modern world is in dire need of interaction between peoples. According to the position of UNESCO, tourism is one of the most important factors in the humanitarian and cultural development of human civilization. It promotes the establishment of dialogue and good-neighborly relations between peoples, leads to the preservation of peace and the rapprochement of ethnic groups. Today, when the wave of conflicts on ethnic grounds is growing, the search for common human and cultural foundations between nationalities and states is extremely important. And these tasks, among others, are solved by tourism. It is designed to draw attention to historical events and facts, and is focused on preserving objects of cultural heritage of different peoples. We can say that through tourism there is an awareness and understanding of the social world. People learn about how other peoples live, what are their values, historical path, and become more tolerant and benevolent. In addition, of course, ethno-tourism is a way of economic and social development of regions, which is especially important for developing countries.

Ethnographic objects

Each type of tourism, including ethnographic tourism, has its own specific objects. Ethnographic objects are understood as phenomena and objects of culture and history that preserve information about the ethnic characteristics of the traditions and life of the people. This is a system of specific features that distinguish the culture of an ethnic group from all others. Traditionally, the following objects of ethnographic tourism are distinguished:

- Archaeological sites with pronounced ethnic characteristics. For example, archaeological excavations in Gorny Altai at the site of the existence of the Pazyryk culture.

- Religious and architectural structures and complexes created by ethnic groups in the process of living in a certain place, including objects created by several ethnic groups. For example, the Kazan Kremlin combines structures of Christian and Muslim cultures and is a unique complex-monument of several ethnic groups.

- Architectural monuments that embody the traditions of a particular ethnic group and are associated with a certain stage in the development of an ethnic group. A striking example is the Terem Palace in the Moscow Kremlin; it is an excellent example of the Russian ornamental style.

- Monuments of cult architecture with pronounced confessional features, created in a specific architectural tradition. An example is the Cathedral in the German city of Bamberg of the 12th century, which is one of the purest examples of the Romanesque style.

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