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ⓘ Tourism in Kalmykia

Tourism in Kalmykia is a branch of the economy of Kalmykia, part of tourism in Russia. Kalmykia has conditions for the development of tourism, but its tourism potential is not fully exploited. Historical heritage, geographical location and natural resources create preconditions for the development of cultural, educational, religious, ecological, equestrian, sports and other types of tourism.

Public administration in the field of tourism

The executive authority in the field of tourism development is the Ministry of Youth Affairs, Tourism and Sports of the Republic of Kalmykia. From 1997 to 2002, this department carried out licensing of international tourism activities, supervision and control over licensees. Thirty travel companies from the Republic of Kalmykia and other regions of Russia received licenses.

In 2000, the Law of the Republic of Kalmykia "On tourist activities in the Republic of Kalmykia" dated April 13, 2000 No. 57-P-Z, as well as the Decree of the President of the Republic of Kalmykia "On the development of tourist activities in the Republic of Kalmykia" were adopted "dated October 23, 2000. No. 181, aimed at creating favorable conditions for the development of tourism in the Republic of Kalmykia, ensuring republican guarantees of the level of qualifications of tourism specialists and the safety of citizens when traveling.

By the Decree of the President of the Republic of Kalmykia dated April 23, 2001 No. 66 "On the republican target program" Development of tourist activities in the Republic of Kalmykia for 2001-2006 ", a republican target program was approved, the purpose of which is to attract investment in the tourism sector , the creation of new jobs, as well as the integration of the Republic of Kalmykia as a constituent entity of the Russian Federation into the system of the international tourist market. The main directions of the program were: engineering arrangement of objects of the tourist and recreational complex of the Republic of Kalmykia, organization of tourism activities and management of tourism development, personnel and scientific support, development of inbound and domestic tourism, development of social tourism in the main areas, implementation of measures to form and promote the national tourism product ... Also 2001 was declared the Year of Tourism Development in Kalmykia.

In 2004, the Federal State Statistics Service of the Russian Federation identified 13 tourist zones of federal significance. According to this division, Kalmykia entered the Volga tourist zone.

By the Decree of the People's Khural of the Republic of Kalmykia dated February 16, 2006 No. 808-II, the Law of the Republic of Kalmykia dated February 17, 2006 No. 257-III-З "On state support of tourist activities in the Republic of Kalmykia" was adopted, which establishes the forms and measures of state support for tourist activities on the territory of the Republic of Kalmykia and is aimed at creating a favorable investment climate in the republic.

According to the concept of the federal target program "Development of domestic and inbound tourism in the Russian Federation 2019 - 2025," Kalmykia is designated as a region that should be included in the promising tourist enlarged investment project "Caspian", it will also include the Astrakhan region and Dagestan.

By Order of the Ministry of Culture and Tourism of the Republic of Kalmykia dated June 8, 2018 No. 161 "On Approval of the Concept for the Development of Domestic and Inbound Tourism in the Republic of Kalmykia for 2019 - 2025", a concept was approved, the purpose of which is to determine the priority areas of development and the formation of the infrastructure of the tourism industry in the Republic of Kalmykia, as well as the marketing and information and communication environment for the growth of the volume of tourism services.

Characteristics of tourism in Kalmykia

Kalmykia has an insignificant share of the tourist flow on the Russian tourist market. Tourist flows are seasonal and uneven territorially. The bulk of tourists are one-day sightseers from nearby regions. A significant part of tourist groups purchase tours with excursions in nearby regions. The most popular are tourist sites located in the capital of Kalmykia - the city of Elista. In the summer, the water resources of the Lagansky and Yustinsky regions are used.

An amazing antelope called margach, saiga, saiga can hardly be called beautiful. But in her appearance there are features of ancient animals, attracting to themselves with special attention, care, anxiety about her future. During the life of mammoths, dinosaurs, saigas were not uncommon, as well as in many places on our planet. A cruel time changed their fate. Now the main homeland of their residence in Russia is Kalmykia, Kazakhstan.

An ancient alien

The animal is included in the list of artiodactyl mammals from the antelope family. Since 2002, by the resolution of the International Union for Conservation of Nature, the species has been assigned to the group "CR" (living in critical condition of extinction). Without protection, care, an ancient mammal can disappear forever from our planet, regions of Kalmykia.

And only in old paintings (like dinosaurs today), we will look with interest at a tall, small antelope with a huge head, a strange nose and a wary gaze. The herd mammal is different from other types. Saigas are not tall (about 70 cm at the withers). Body length reaches 140 cm (rarely larger). They have thin, short legs. The average body weight of saigas is about 35 kg. A large head with a humped muzzle ending in a nose (nostrils directed downward) in the form of a trunk. The elongated nose helps to effectively filter the passing air from dust elements, warm it up in winter, and play an important role in the mating season. Margachi with its help emit original sounds, frightening off rivals, attracting females. Sometimes their songs give them victory for the female without a fight. Males develop beautiful lyre-shaped horns (30 cm long) with annular ridges at the base. Their invaluable healing qualities, used by the folk medicine of Kalmykia and other Asian countries, have become one of the reasons for the brutal destruction by poachers.

In summer, saigas have a reddish color of fur with darker shades on the back. In winter, the fur turns to a gray, ashy shade. Molting takes place in spring and autumn. The ears have a rounded tip. The middle hooves on the legs are much larger than the lateral ones. They leave an interesting heart-shaped footprint on the soil during their annual migration. The natural phenomenon of regular movement of saiga herds is explained by the search for food and drink depending on the season. Animals move in amble, developing a speed of 80 km/h, which is easier on a flat steppe surface (in mountains, forest thickets, animals become helpless). Even jumping over the ditch is difficult for them. They feed on desert plants, shrubs, lichens, bitter wormwood, bright tulips, and other flowers, even poisonous ones. Thanks to their well-developed hearing, saigas are not allowed to approach them. Often, individual animals make jumps to inspect the area, defending themselves from the main natural enemies of the steppe wolves, jackals. In case of danger, the herd immediately runs away, gaining maximum speed in a few seconds. During daylight hours, their activity increases. They move even while eating. At any moment, the leader of the herd can change the direction of movement without slowing down the running speed. They bypass the crop plantations. Soft, loose soil prevents them from maintaining a high running speed.

The rutting season can be observed in November. During this period, the male forms for himself a harem of females (from 5 to 30 units). Due to the polygamous characteristics of males, early sexual maturity of females (after 8.9 months), it is possible to quickly restore the number of animals. Often, females give birth to two cubs. The gestation period lasts 5 months. In the spring, before the birth of young, females are separated from the herd in separate places, where one or two babies appear in open places. Their skin glands are not developed. It is difficult to notice, to determine by the smell of babies. Mother nature has come up with a way to preserve an ancient animal on our planet. After two weeks, they follow the mother on their own. The natural life span of the male saiga in Kalmykia is 5 years. Females live for about 10 years.

Legends of the Sacred Animal

The life of an inhabitant of the arid regions of Eurasia is closely connected with the life of the Kalmyks who settled among the endless steppes in the 17th century. The epos of the Kalmyk peoples is filled with fairy tales, proverbs, legends, songs about the close connection with the "eternal nomad", the saiga. It contains the subtleties of Tibetan culture. One of the legends about saigas is considered the legend of the White Elder. One day a Kalmyk decided to start hunting a huge herd of animals. But the herd opened up. The figure of Delkyan Tsagan Aav (the White Elder) appeared in its center. He threatened and ordered the hunter never to shoot saigas huddled in a herd. According to Buddhist beliefs, at this time they are milked by the White Elder. The wise, peaceful, fast-footed, freedom-loving saiga has always been protected by the mythical patron of the steppe expanses. Despite this, his life was not easy. For nomadic tribes, saigas have always been a source of food and healing potions. In the settlements of Kalmyks (historical monuments of khotons), excessive hunting was prohibited. This was strictly followed. The modern world with its new needs and laws has violated the eternal harmony of nature. The thirst for enrichment through the trade in saiga horns caused great damage to the livestock. Traditional medicine of Asian countries uses powder from male horns to treat many diseases (seizures, coma, headaches, hypertension, stroke). In China, the healing properties of saiga horns are compared in properties with rhino horns.

Their cost is great. So the decaying carcasses of animals without horns lie in the steppes. High fines, jail time do not always stop the actions of poachers.

The symbol of the modern Republic of Kalmykia

The life of the Kalmyk people has always been associated with the valuable species Saiga tatarica tatarica. Countless times they saved each other from hunger, cold, and other troubles. The endless steppes, the ever-running herd that originated with the mammoths, has become a symbol of the country. Now, when, due to various circumstances, trouble came to the animals that survived the Ice Age, they are rescuing them in Kalmykia, Kazakhstan. The main reasons for the catastrophic decline in the number of saigas:

  • Poaching. The low standard of living of the population makes it profitable to sell horns at 25 thousand/kg. The number of males is sharply decreasing (there is 1 margach per 35 females in the conditions of protected reserves). In the hunt for the saiga (the symbol of the steppes), high-speed modern technology is used, bringing the animals to exhaustion and death without the use of firearms.
  • Change of habitats, migration routes due to climate change.
  • Steppe fires, increased number of steppe wolves.
  • Weakening of the system of protection, monitoring, control of the number, poor technical equipment of the teams monitoring the state of saigas. Often, herds migrate to the territory without protection from poachers, which leads to the death of a large number of individuals.

Meat, skin, horns of margach are always in demand by the population. The specialists are planning to discuss the supply of gourmet meat to restaurants around the world to organize a profitable business. On the territory of endless steppes with a unique flora and fauna, there are many natural monuments, attractions (the heritage of the Khazars, the cities of the Golden Horde, the Great Silk Road). Every year a thematic (nature conservation) festival is held here, dedicated to modern methods of preserving natural heritage. Among them, the saiga is a worthy leader. Since March 2015, the saigas are a symbol of Kalmykia, included in the Red Book of the Republic of Kalmykia. Tourists who come to get acquainted with the nature of the country can try the national hunting dish Shulum. It is cooked only in the steppe in a special pit. Finely chopped meat is dipped in a bucket, brought to a boil, cooked for 37 minutes. During cooking, add spices, vegetables (onions, garlic, peppers, pickled cucumbers, tomatoes). The finished meat is laid out separately, slightly salted. Broth is considered valuable. They drink it hot.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Tourism in Kalmykia is a branch of the economy of Kalmykia, part of tourism in Russia. Kalmykia has conditions for the development of tourism, but its tourism potential is not fully exploited. Historical heritage, geographical location and natural resources create preconditions for the development of cultural, educational, religious, ecological, equestrian, sports and other types of tourism [1].

Public administration in the field of tourism

The executive authority in the field of tourism development is the Ministry of Youth Affairs, Tourism and Sports of the Republic of Kalmykia. From 1997 to 2002, this department carried out licensing of international tourism activities, supervision and control over licensees. Thirty travel companies from the Republic of Kalmykia and other regions of Russia received licenses [1].

In 2000, the Law of the Republic of Kalmykia "On tourist activities in the Republic of Kalmykia" dated April 13, 2000 No. 57-P-Z, as well as the Decree of the President of the Republic of Kalmykia "On the development of tourist activities in the Republic of Kalmykia" were adopted "Dated October 23, 2000. No. 181, aimed at creating favorable conditions for the development of tourism in the Republic of Kalmykia, ensuring republican guarantees of the level of qualifications of tourism specialists and the safety of citizens when traveling [1].

By the Decree of the President of the Republic of Kalmykia dated April 23, 2001 No. 66 "On the republican target program" Development of tourist activities in the Republic of Kalmykia for 2001-2006 "", a republican target program was approved, the purpose of which is to attract investments into the sphere tourism, the creation of new jobs, as well as the integration of the Republic of Kalmykia as a constituent entity of the Russian Federation into the system of the international tourist market [2]. The main directions of the program were: engineering arrangement of objects of the tourist and recreational complex of the Republic of Kalmykia, organization of tourism activities and management of tourism development, personnel and scientific support, development of inbound and domestic tourism, development of social tourism in the main areas, implementation of measures to form and promote the national tourism product ... Also 2001 was declared in Kalmykia as the Year of Tourism Development [1].

In 2004, the Federal State Statistics Service of the Russian Federation identified 13 tourist zones of federal significance. According to this division, Kalmykia entered the Volga tourist zone [3].

By the Resolution of the People's Khural of the Republic of Kalmykia dated February 16, 2006 No. 808-II, the Law of the Republic of Kalmykia dated February 17, 2006 No. 257-III-З "On state support of tourist activities in the Republic of Kalmykia" was adopted [4 ], which establishes the forms and measures of state support for tourist activities on the territory of the Republic of Kalmykia and is aimed at creating a favorable investment climate in the republic.

According to the concept of the federal target program "Development of domestic and inbound tourism in the Russian Federation (2019-2025)" Kalmykia is designated as a region that should be included in the promising tourist enlarged investment project "Caspian" (it will also include Astrakhan region and Dagestan) [5].

By Order of the Ministry of Culture and Tourism of the Republic of Kalmykia dated June 8, 2018 No. 161 "On Approval of the Concept for the Development of Domestic and Inbound Tourism in the Republic of Kalmykia for 2019-2025" [6], a concept was approved, the purpose of which is to determine priority areas of development and formation of infrastructure for the tourism industry in the Republic of Kalmykia, as well as marketing and information and communication environment for the growth of tourism services.

Characteristics of tourism in Kalmykia

Kalmykia has an insignificant share of the tourist flow on the Russian tourist market. Tourist flows are seasonal and uneven territorially. The bulk of tourists are one-day sightseers from nearby regions. A significant part of tourist groups purchase tours with excursions in nearby regions. The most popular are tourist sites located in the capital of Kalmykia - the city of Elista. In the summer, the water resources of the Lagansky and Yustinsky regions are used [6].

Tourism of Kalmykia has an outbound orientation. Private travel companies and entrepreneurs are engaged in summer seasonal transportation of tourists to other regions, more often to resort areas of the Black Sea coast. Inbound tourism is most often manifested in the form of a business trip with an introductory tour of Kalmykia, amateur tourism, hunting and fishing. Tourists often come in their cars from Russia and neighboring countries. Amateur tourists, fishermen and hunters live in tents, at tourist centers, in the private sector [2]./n>

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