You've probably heard about pilgrim tourism, because everyone has heard such phrases as "pilgrim tour", "pilgrim excursion" and so on. But is it really possible to identify such different concepts. All this comes from the fact that many do not understand the full depth and essence of pilgrimage. Based on the outward resemblance of the journey of believers to holy places, it is difficult to call this action tourism. The point is that pilgrimage and tourism are linked by elements of travel. But these processes are based on different motives. Visiting holy places, tourists and pilgrims pursue their own goals.
The word “pilgrimage” comes from “palm”. This name is associated with the palm branches with which the inhabitants of Jerusalem met Jesus Christ. Now this is the name of a journey to the Holy Land in Jerusalem, to Mount Athos in Greece and to other places that have a sacred (sacred) significance for the Christian faith. This custom is based on the desire to pray before miraculous icons, to plunge into the sacred waters of the Jordan River and holy springs. A pilgrim who makes such a journey is called a pilgrim or pilgrim (from the Latin "stranger, traveler").
The pilgrimage originated in ancient times. Already in the New Testament there is an example when the Holy Family-Virgin Mary with a 12-year-old boy Jesus and husband Joseph visited Jerusalem on the Easter holiday.
The main goals of the holy pilgrimage are:
The journey should begin with repentance. In such a spiritual mood, a person will be able to correctly understand everything that he sees on the trip. In the future, when visiting holy places, one should strictly observe religious canons. So, there is a custom of worshiping the Holy Sepulcher in Palestine. First you need to pray in the annex of the Angel and venerate the part of the stone, rolled away by the Angel, then with a prayer go to the chapel of the Church of the Holy Sepulcher, put candles, kneel down and pray.
Tourism means participation in a trip, the purpose of which is to find out more useful and interesting information. Religious tourism is one of the areas of modern tourism. The main feature of such tourism is cognitive interest, study of facts about holy places, acquaintance with history, contemplation of picturesque architecture. During the trip, the guide tells about all this. It is the excursion that is the source of information during the journey, of particular value for the tourist.
At the same time, the excursion can be an integral part of any pilgrimage. But there is a "but", in this case it is of an auxiliary nature and is not obligatory for pilgrims. The culmination of the pilgrimage is prayer. The opportunity to bow to the relics, touch the holy places, show your devotion and strengthen your beliefs. Moreover, in a pilgrimage, it is not so much the canonicity of the performance of rituals and how it looks from the outside that is important, but the inner mood of the pilgrim, his bright thoughts, a heart filled with love.
On October 24, 1648, the Thirty Years' War ended with the signing of the Peace of Westphalia.
The term "World War" is usually associated with the 20th century, when humanity went through two global conflicts, in which dozens of countries were involved, and the number of victims was estimated at tens of millions of people.
But large-scale wars have happened in history before. The Thirty Years War, which broke out in the 17th century, is sometimes called "World Zero" because in its devastating consequences it really resembled the conflicts of the 20th century.
Since the 10th century, the Holy Roman Empire existed on the territory of Europe, since the 16th century it has been called the Holy Roman Empire of the German nation. It was a decentralized formation with a complex feudal hierarchical structure that united several hundred territorial-state formations. The basis of the territory of the Holy Roman Empire was made up of numerous German states.
The Reformation, which led to the division of Western Christians into Catholics and Lutherans, became the cause of fierce religious conflicts, which in the territory of the Holy Roman Empire were settled by the Augsburg Religious Peace of 1555. The document recognized Lutheranism as the official religion and established the right of the imperial estates to choose their religion.
The world, however, turned out to be quite fragile. In Europe, the Counter-Reformation was gaining momentum - an attempt by the Catholics to take revenge, completely returning the lost positions. Conflicts led to dozens of riots in various cities of the empire. In 1608, one of the free imperial cities of Donauworth, where Catholics and Protestants had equal rights, was captured by Duke Maximilian of Bavaria. Having captured the city, Maximilian exposed its inhabitants to a huge bill to compensate for their military costs. After they could not pay it, Maximilian actually annexed the city to Bavaria and, within the framework of the principle of cujus regio, ejus religio, banned Protestantism there. Protestant princes in the south and west of Germany united in the Evangelical Union to organize an organized rebuff to the growing pressure of Catholics. In response, the Catholics united in the Catholic League a year later. The advisory organs of the empire were paralyzed, and full-scale war became almost inevitable.
In June 1617, the childless emperor of the Holy Roman Empire, Matthew (King of Bohemia under the name of Matthias II), passed through the General Diet a decision to declare his nephew, Archduke Ferdinand of Styria, the heir to the Czech throne. The heir was raised by the Jesuits and was considered a fanatical Catholic. This frightened the Czechs, most of them Protestants. In March 1618, burghers and opposition Protestant nobles gathered in Prague and appealed to the emperor to stop violating the religious rights of Protestants. An even more representative Protestant convention was scheduled for May, but it was banned by the emperor.
In Prague, on May 23, 1618, Protestant nobles led by Count Turnus threw imperial governors Vilém Slavata and Jaroslav of Martinitz and their scribe Philip Fabritius into a moat from a high fortified window in Prague Castle. Surprisingly, all three escaped death. This event went down in history under the name "The Second Prague Defenestration" - by analogy with the events of 1419, which marked the beginning of the so-called Hussite Wars.
The events of May 1618 turned into a punitive campaign of the imperial army in the Czech Republic, from which the Thirty Years War began.
It is customary to distinguish four periods of the Thirty Years War: Czech-Palatinate (1618-1624), Danish (1625-1629), Swedish (1630-1635) and Franco-Swedish (1635-1648). The first two periods developed in favor of Catholics, ending in 1629 with the publication of the Edict on Restitution, which drastically curtailed the rights of Protestants. The rights of the Catholic Church were restored to all property secularized by Protestants since 1552 - over the course of the lives of three generations. Those who honestly acquired church lands confiscated earlier were also deprived of their rights. 2 archbishoprics, 12 bishoprics and hundreds of monasteries were returned to the Catholic Church. The edict annulled the legality of all previous decisions regarding church lands, affirming the emperor's right to change laws and legal acts at his discretion.
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