Religion in Hungary. The most widespread religious trend in Hungary is Catholicism, according to the 2001 national census, 5,558,901 people or 54.5% of the total population of the country consider themselves to be Catholics. The majority of the Hungarian Catholic population belongs to the Latin rite; 268,935 people (2.6% of the population) ranked themselves as Greek Catholics.
The second most widespread religion is Protestantism (mainly Calvinism). Protestants account for 19.5% of the country's population. For historical reasons, Protestantism is widespread in the east of the country (especially in the Debrecen region), where it is the most numerous religion. More than 90% of Hungarian Protestants are Calvinists, there are also Lutherans, Baptists, etc.
Among religious minorities - Orthodox (mainly ethnic Serbs, Romanians, Ukrainians and Rusyns), Jews, Muslims, etc. The number of followers of religions not related to Catholicism and Protestantism does not exceed 0.5% in total ... The number of atheists and agnostics, according to the census, is 1,483,369 (14.5%). About 10% of Hungarian citizens refused to answer the question about their religious affiliation.
Hungarians remained pagans during their migration to Europe. After their settlement in the Danube lowland, a number of Christian missionaries from the West attempted to convert them to Christianity, but they were unsuccessful until the beginning of the 11th century. The first Christian king of the country was Istvan I, who was later canonized, like his son Imre. In the first half of the 11th century, most of the Hungarians adopted the Christianity of the Latin rite, and Gerard of Hungary played a significant role in the conversion of the Hungarians. The pagan reaction after the death of Istvan I was soon suppressed. King Laszlo I, also later canonized, played an important role in strengthening the position of Catholicism in the country.
Until the Reformation, the vast majority of Hungarians were Catholic. The Reformation achieved great success in Hungary, first Lutheranism and then Calvinism spread widely among the Hungarians, and in the middle of the 16th century Hungary became a predominantly Protestant country. The struggle between Catholics and Protestants took place against the backdrop of the Turkish invasion, by the beginning of the 17th century, the Turks captured almost the entire country, the residence of the head of the Catholic Church, Archbishop Esztergom, was moved to Trnava, and then to Bratislava. On the territory of Ottoman Hungary, a certain number of Catholic churches were destroyed or converted into mosques, part of the population converted to Islam. In the northern part of Hungary (now the territory of Slovakia), which came under the control of the Habsburgs, a counter-reformation unfolded, which took place under the leading role of the Jesuit order and turned out to be effective. The Jesuits founded many educational institutions, including the oldest university in Hungary, and actively promoted Catholic piety among the people. After liberation from the Turks, Hungary again became a predominantly Catholic country, with the exception of the eastern regions, especially Debrecen, where numerous Protestant communities remained.
Before World War II, the Roman Catholic Church and the state in Hungary were closely related to each other; at the same time, there was freedom of religion. After 1947, relations between the church and the Hungarian state became hostile. Although the 1949 constitution nominally guaranteed religious freedom, the communist regime confiscated church property, persecuted clergy, abolished religious orders, and nationalized parish schools. Cardinal Jozsef Mindszenty was jailed in 1949 for opposing these measures. In the end, the various churches and the state of Hungary reached an agreement by which they recognized control of them by the regime. In return, the state allowed churches to conduct religious services and pay for the maintenance of priests. The State Office for Religious Affairs could revoke the appointments of church officials and priests. In 1964, the government entered into an agreement with the Vatican aimed at normalizing relations between the Hungarian Catholic Church and the state. Diplomatic relations with the Vatican were restored in 1978. In the 1990s, churches reopened their schools and other institutions that had been closed during the communist dictatorship.
In 2011, the new Hungarian Constitution, although it retained the secular nature of the state, speaks of "a nation based on ethnic origin, the revival of Christian values in the Hungarian state and society, and cooperation between Church and State." In 2011 - 2012, new legislation on religious associations was adopted, which recognized only 14 religious organizations out of 358 that existed in Hungary . To register, a religious organization must prove that it has existed in Hungary in an organized manner for at least 20 years and has at least 1,000 believers . Five historical denominations have received special status - the Catholic Church, Orthodoxy, Judaism, Protestantism and the Church of Faith . The law gave them only the right to state support. Hungarian citizens have been paying a voluntary contribution of 1% on income tax since 1998, the state pays for teaching religion in schools and the expenses of the clergy (since 2002) in small settlements (with a population of up to 5 thousand people), since 2003 the authorities have also paid extra religious organizations 0.8% of collected taxes from citizens . In addition, there is a 1% voluntary tax on the maintenance of cultural institutions and public organizations. Sometimes they pay extra from the budget for the repair of architectural monuments occupied by religious organizations .
Keseg is a small town in Hungary with a population of 12 thousand. But despite its small area, it is often visited by tourists and independent travelers. The reason is the historical monuments, the unique atmosphere of the city. What you need to know about Kesseg, Hungary - attractions, location, points of interest.
The tourist city is located on the western border of Hungary. It belongs to the Vash County and covers an area of 54 km². Became famous after the siege by Turkish troops in the 16th century. Having successfully repulsed 19 attacks, the garrison held their positions and did not allow the Janissaries to go further. The official lifting of the siege took place at 11:00. Since then, every day at this time, the bell rings in the main square.
To see the sights in Keseg, Hungary, it is recommended to fly to Budapest. At the railway station you need to buy a ticket to Szombathely, then change to the R train. You can get to Keseg by bus, but the travel time will be longer.
Tip: in winter you can send to Hungarian ski resorts. Advantages - choice of slopes, good service.
The historical landmark is located on the border with Austria. The Alps begin behind the Keseg castle, which made it an important target for the Turkish invaders. In the 16th century, the defenders of the fortress could repel several attacks, protecting Vienna from occupation. Miklos Yursich became the main hero of the battle. In honor of his feat, a monument was erected at the entrance to the fortress.
In Keseg, Hungary, the landmark has been rebuilt and reconstructed several times. The style of the complex remains medieval, the main building is connected to the outer defensive structure by a bridge. A chapel was built in the northern zone. Now there is a wine cellar on the ground floor. Tourists can visit the knight's rooms on the second floor.
The entrance to the tourist complex is free. On its territory there is a museum of local lore, and a local theater gives performances. Accommodation in a small hotel is possible.
Gyёрr is the sixth largest city in Hungary. It has many historical and cultural sites of interest to tourists and independent travelers. To draw up a recreation program, you need to familiarize yourself with them. We invite you to find out what Gyor is famous for in Hungary - sights, memorable and simply interesting places.
The city is located in the northwestern part of the country. It is the administrative center of two large settlements in Hungary - Moson Sopron. The peculiarity of the location - on the territory there is a confluence of two rivers - Raba and Mosoni-Danube. The resort is surrounded by forests, there are many places for hiking.
The advantage of the resort is its location. It is located 130 km from Budapest, westward. A railway line from the capital of Hungary runs through the city. It can be reached by car along the Budapest-Vienna highway. Average journey time is 2 hours. From Gyor you can get to Bratislava and other southern regions of the country.
It is visible from all points of Gyor, Hungary - the attraction is located on Mount Kaptalan. It is a favorite destination for tourists and travelers for photos and selfies. Advantages - well-preserved appearance, several buildings are combined into a single complex. Here you can learn more about the history of the country, the life of local residents.
Interesting facts about the Bishop's castle:
Religious exhibitions and events are periodically held. There is a working church here, but it does not have an interesting past. Entrance to the territory, except for the local history museum, is free. You can bring cameras and video equipment with you.
Many active historical sites are converted old churches, cathedrals or fortresses. Some nations are being replaced by others. The Cathedral of the Virgin Mary is no exception, it is located on the basis of an ancient temple. Now it is one of the main attractions of Gyor and Hungary.
The Danube is known to be the second largest river in Europe. Its total length is 2860 kilometers. The Danube flows or is a border through the territory of ten countries. Back in 1856, a Paris treaty declared the river international with free navigation for any civilian ships of all Danube countries.
Without pleading international agreements and despite the fact that the river section passing through the territory of Hungary is only 410 km., the inhabitants of the country consider the Danube exclusively in unity with Hungary. Even the hymn emphasizes his role in the “finding of his homeland” by the Magyars: “where the Danube waters flow, there Arpad lived a hero”. Let me remind you that Saint Stephen, the founder of the Hungarian state, belonged to the Arpad dynasty. Well, as for the Danube radiated, then there is every reason for pride.
Perhaps this interpretation most correctly characterizes the bus excursion offered by travel agencies. It envisages visiting three objects (another, generalizing for them, I could not find a word), located on the right bank of the Danube, not far from one another. As a rule, a batch option is offered. But in view of the fact that I have already told about our second independent trip to Szentendre, we will talk about the two remaining ones.
This abounding section of the river, opening a wide beautiful panorama of wooded mountains and the bend of the Danube, is a popular place for both tourists and locals. Although the priorities of the two most likely do not coincide.
If tourists are mainly aimed at the informational and educational part of the trip, then the locals consider it as an option for active recreation. Therefore, I do not recommend planning an independent weekend excursion. There is a danger for the rest of your life to hate the bicycle and all the people involved in its invention. Hungarians love mass bike rides, which, together with their "iron horses", get to the place by electrician or motor ship.
Strictly speaking, Estergon was not the capital of the kingdom, in the truest sense of the word. But the role that the city played in the political, religious and economic life of Hungary gives reason to de facto call it that. Suffice it to say that the first Hungarian king, Saint Stephen, was crowned here in 1001. This event is captured in a marble obelisk installed on the observation deck behind the basilica building. Here the Esztergom bishopric was formed - the main ecclesiastical province of the kingdom. The archbishop held the title of Primate of Hungary, to which all hierarchs of the Hungarian Catholic Church were subordinate.
Esztergom is one of the oldest cities in Hungary. Even before 972 - the first written mention of it, there were settlements of the Celts, which were replaced by the Romans. During the great migration of peoples, Germanic and Slavic tribes lived in the region. With the arrival of the Magyars in the 10th century, the city on the bend of the Danube began to gradually turn into the residence of the Hungarian kings, and in fact, into the capital of the state.
Esztergom has often found himself in important areas of Hungary's difficult path of development. The most difficult events of the past centuries did not pass by either. The invasion of the Mongols and Czech troops of Wenceslas III, the one and a half century domination of the Ottomans, the relative peaceful coexistence with the Habsburg dynasty, the uprisings, wars and revolutions of the XIX-XX centuries - one way or another affected the life of the city. Destroyed several times, it was reborn again. Today it is a small (actually, according to Hungarian measures, and not small) city, with a population of just over 28.00 people. The main attraction of which and a place of attraction for tourist groups is the Esztergom Basilica. And this is where the expanse for guides begins. I don’t know how many times the attributive pronoun “Most” will have to be repeated, but in advance I ask you not to accuse me of tautology.
Rising on the steep bank of the Danube, the Basilica of the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary and St. Adalbert was erected in 1823-1869. in a place of worship. It was here in the period 1001-1010 that Saint Stephen built the very first Christian church in Hungary, dedicated to Saint Adalbert. She became a kind of forerunner of the modern basilica.