Vatican Tourism

Vatican Tourism

Pilgrims visit the Vatican most often during religious holidays such as Christmas or Easter, or during important events such as the election of a pope.

Tourism is one of the main sources of income in the Vatican economy. Although the area of ​​the Vatican is only 44 hectares [2], in 2007, for example, about 4.3 million people visited the Vatican Museums [3].

The influx of tourists attracts criminals to the Vatican, who often carry out pickpocketing [4].

Contents

Vatican City State

According to the 1929 Lateran Accords, the Vatican is an independent state with a population of just over 800 [5] as of July 2011. The Pope has three inseparable functions:

  • As a secular sovereign in the status of a monarch (with the qualifications of a sovereign prince);
  • As a Roman bishop, he is the head of the Catholic Church and its highest ruling hierarch;
  • As a sovereign of the Vatican city-state (subsidiary territory in the status of a sovereign principality).

In antiquity, the territory of the modern Vatican, at that time called (lat.Ager Vaticanum) - marshland, was outside the city limits of Rome. Here were the villas and gardens of the mother of Emperor Caligula - Agrippina. Later, in these gardens, on the slope of the Vatican Hill, Caligula ordered the construction of a small hippodrome, which was later restored under the Emperor Nero and on which, according to legend, was crucified in 64 AD. e. Saint Peter, then buried in the necropolis (now the Vatican necropolis (English) Russian), located at that time along the main road of the Vaticanum. In 326, after the equalization of Christianity in rights with other religions, the first basilica was erected over the supposed tomb of Peter by order of the Emperor Constantine. [6]

The gardens in the Vatican Hills were first mentioned during the time of Pope Nicholas III (XIII century). At the end of the 13th century, medicinal plants, as well as vegetables and fruits were grown here. During the late Middle Ages, the gardens gradually lost their economic importance. In 1485, Pope Innocent VIII began building the Belvedere here (now part of the Vatican Museums). Pope Pius IV was a passionate lover of parks; in 1559, on his instructions, a decorative Renaissance park was laid out in the northern part of the gardens, in the center of which a Mannerist casino building was being built. In 1578, Pope Gregory XIII erected the Tower of the Winds here, in which he placed his astronomical observatory. In 1607, thanks to an additional supply of water from Lake Bracciano located 40 kilometers away, craftsmen from the Netherlands created various fountains, cascades and other water wonders in the gardens. In the second half of the 17th century, the territory of the gardens was increasingly used for botanical purposes. So, Pope Clement XI plants rare species of subtropical plants here. Since 1850, much of the gardens have been modeled after English park art. In 1888, Pope Leo XIII opened the Vatican Zoo here.

Sistine Chapel

And in 1536-1541 Michelangelo painted the altar wall - the Last Judgment fresco, commissioned by Pope Paul III. Since the end of the 15th century, Conclaves have been held in the Chapel. The first Conclave held in the Capella was the 1492 Conclave, which elected Alexander VI. The chapel was consecrated on August 15, 1483 - the feast of the Assumption of the Mother of God.

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Vatican Tourism

The Vatican is a very popular tourist destination, the main tourist attractions in the Vatican include St. Peter's Basilica, St. Peter's Square, Vatican Museums, Sistine Chapel and Vatican Gardens [1].

Pilgrims visit the Vatican most often during religious holidays such as Christmas or Easter, or during important events such as the election of a pope.

Tourism is one of the main sources of income in the Vatican economy. Although the area of ​​the Vatican is only 44 hectares [2], in 2007, for example, about 4.3 million people visited the Vatican Museums [3].

The influx of tourists attracts criminals to the Vatican, who often carry out pickpocketing [4].

Contents

Vatican City State [edit]

According to the 1929 Lateran Accords, the Vatican is an independent state with a population of just over 800 [5] as of July 2011. The Pope has three inseparable functions:

  • As a secular sovereign in the status of a monarch (with the qualifications of a sovereign prince);
  • As a Roman bishop, he is the head of the Catholic Church and its highest ruling hierarch;
  • As a sovereign of the Vatican city-state (subsidiary territory in the status of a sovereign principality).

In antiquity, the territory of the modern Vatican, at that time called (lat.Ager Vaticanum) - marshland, was outside the city limits of Rome. Here were the villas and gardens of the mother of Emperor Caligula - Agrippina. Later, in these gardens, on the slope of the Vatican Hill, Caligula ordered the construction of a small hippodrome, which was later restored under the Emperor Nero and on which, according to legend, was crucified in 64 AD. e. Saint Peter, then buried in the necropolis (now the Vatican necropolis (English) Russian), located at that time along the main road of the Vaticanum. In 326, after the equalization of Christianity in rights with other religions, the first basilica was erected over the supposed tomb of Peter by order of the Emperor Constantine. [6]

The gardens in the Vatican Hills were first mentioned during the time of Pope Nicholas III (XIII century). At the end of the 13th century, medicinal plants, as well as vegetables and fruits were grown here. During the late Middle Ages, the gardens gradually lost their economic importance. In 1485, Pope Innocent VIII began building the Belvedere here (now part of the Vatican Museums). Pope Pius IV was a passionate lover of parks; in 1559, on his instructions, a decorative Renaissance park was laid out in the northern part of the gardens, in the center of which a Mannerist casino building was being built. In 1578, Pope Gregory XIII erected the Tower of the Winds here, in which he placed his astronomical observatory. In 1607, thanks to an additional supply of water from Lake Bracciano located 40 kilometers away, craftsmen from the Netherlands created various fountains, cascades and other water wonders in the gardens. In the second half of the 17th century, the territory of the gardens was increasingly used for botanical purposes. So, Pope Clement XI plants rare species of subtropical plants here. Since 1850, much of the gardens have been modeled after English park art. In 1888, Pope Leo XIII opened the Vatican Zoo here.

Sistine Chapel [edit]

The Sistine Chapel (Latin Sacellum Sixtinum; Italian Cappella Sistina) is a former house church built in 1473-1481 by the architect George de Dolci, commissioned by Pope Sixtus IV, hence its name. Nowadays, the Chapel is a museum, which is also used for holding conclaves at which the cardinals elect a new pope. The project of the Sistine Chapel was created by the architect Baccio Pontelli, and the work was carried out under the direction of George de Dolci. The rectangular room is decorated with wall paintings made in 1481-1483 by Sandro Botticelli, Pinturicchio and other masters commissioned by Sixtus IV. In 1508-1512, Michelangelo painted the vault with lunettes and stripping, commissioned by Pope Julius II. 500 years ago, on October 31, 1512, Pope Julius II served a solemn Vespers in honor of the creation of frescoes on the vault of the Sistine Chapel. On October 31, 2012, at the same hour, Pope Benedict XVI repeated the solemn ceremony in honor of the five hundredth anniversary of the chapel.

And in 1536-1541 Michelangelo painted the altar wall - the Last Judgment fresco, commissioned by Pope Paul III. Since the end of the 15th century, Conclaves have been held in the Chapel. The first Conclave held in the Capella was the 1492 Conclave, which elected Alexander VI. The chapel was consecrated on August 15, 1483 - the feast of the Assumption of the Mother of God.

Tourism in the Vatican The Vatican is a very popular destination for tourists, the main tourist attractions in the Vatican include St. Peter's Basilica, St. Peter's Square, museums

The Vatican is a mysterious and very interesting place that attracts millions of tourists every year. But in order to go here and enjoy the trip, you need to figure out a few important points.

What is the Vatican?

The Vatican is a dwarf and the smallest enclave state in the world, which in its essence is a city and is located on the territory of Rome, but does not depend on Italy. By the way, there is an opinion that the name is translated from Latin as "a place of fortune-telling", so it is not for nothing that the Vatican is considered one of the most mysterious places.

Among other things, this is the real world center of Catholicism, where the Pope lives (by the way, he is elected for life and rules the state). It is here that age-old relics and artifacts are kept, about which little is known to this day.

The population of the Vatican does not exceed 1-1.5 thousand people, and most of it is made up of Italians. There are two languages ​​on the territory: Latin and Italian. The main currency is the euro.

How to get there?

You can get to the Vatican by plane, and there is no airport in it, so you have to arrive in Rome, and then go to the enclave state itself.

Visa and customs regimes

Since the Vatican belongs to the territory of Italy, a valid Schengen visa is required to enter this enclave state. And if it is tourist, then the period of stay on the territory cannot exceed two weeks.

As for the customs regime, the import and export of currency is unlimited, but the amount over 10 thousand euros must be declared. The import of tobacco products and alcohol is limited, as in most European countries.

What cannot be taken out of the Vatican? Items that are of cultural or historical value. In addition, there is a limit on the amount spent on buying souvenirs. It should not exceed 300 euros, but the details should be asked at customs, as the rules are changing.

Vatican General Information

The official name is Vatican. Located in the southern part of Europe. Area 0.44 km2. The population is 0.9 thousand. (estimate 2002). Official languages ​​- Italian, Latin. The capital is the Vatican City (0.9 thousand people). A public holiday is the coronation day of Pope John Paul II on October 22 (since 1978). The monetary unit is the euro (since 2002).

Possessions: 13 buildings in Rome and the summer residence of the Pope in Castel Gandolfo, enjoying the right of extraterritoriality.

Has permanent observer status at the UN and many other international organizations.

Geography of the Vatican

The Vatican, the smallest state in the world, is located between 41 ° 54 'north latitude and 10 ° 27' east longitude, in the western part of Rome on the right bank of the Tiber River. It has no outlet to the sea. The landscape is hilly, with a height difference of 19 to 75 m. There are no minerals. The climate is temperate (mild rainy winters and hot dry summers).

Population of the Vatican

Population growth rates - 1.15%; data on fertility, mortality, etc. are not published. The ethnic composition is heterogeneous, dominated by Italians and Swiss. Prelates, nuns, guards and 3,000 employees live outside the Vatican. Religion - Roman Catholic.

History of the Vatican

The origin of the Vatican dates back to 756, when the king of the Franks Pepin the Short, in gratitude for his political support, presented to Pope Stephen II the Roman region, part of Ravenna and Catania. The resulting state, which was called the Papal States, existed until 1870 and gained great political weight thanks to its active participation in internecine wars on the peninsula, as well as in European affairs. It was liquidated by Napoleon Bonaparte in 1809, but restored by the Congress of Vienna in 1815. During the Italian Revolution of 1848, the Pope was expelled from his possessions, but returned to power by the troops of Napoleon III. In the process of the national unification of Italy, the papal throne lost its possessions one after another, and in 1870 the troops of King Victor Emmanuel entered Rome. The Italian State's “Law on the Prerogatives of the Pope and the Holy See” (“Law on Guarantees”) recognized the sovereignty of the Pope in the Vatican. And he granted him property privileges, but Pius IX did not accept these conditions and declared himself a prisoner. The conflict was only settled in 1929 by the conclusion of the Lateran Treaty and the Concordat between the Vatican and the government of Mussolini. According to the treaty, the Vatican was declared "neutral and inviolable territory", and the Pope was paid compensation for the damage suffered. According to the Concordat, the Roman Catholic religion was declared the state religion of Italy. The Democratic Constitution of 1947 confirmed the operation of the Lateran Treaty, but the revised version of the Concordat in 1984 separated the church from the state and abolished most of the privileges given to it earlier.

Government and political system of the Vatican

The Vatican is the center of the Catholic world, uniting more than 1 billion people. It is a theocratic state built on the basis of canon law. The Apostolic Constitution, adopted in 1967, is in effect. The country has no administrative division, like other cities. In 2001, an imminent revision of the Constitution related to the Lateran Accords was announced, in the direction of greater delineation of the branches of government.

The highest legislative and executive body is the Commission, headed and appointed by the Pope. The Pontiff is the head of state, personifying his sovereignty, and has all the power. He is elected for life by a college (conclave) of cardinals under the age of 80, with a majority of 2/3 votes. The head of government is the Secretary of State, appointed by the Pope. The pontiff has deliberative bodies: the Holy College of Cardinals, appointed by the Pope, and the Synod of Bishops. The latter presents the patriarchs and some heads of the Catholic churches of the Eastern rite, elected representatives of national episcopal conferences and religious orders, cardinals, leaders of the Roman congregations (standing committees) and other persons appointed by the pope. The order of the meetings of the Synod is determined by the pontiff. The day-to-day affairs of church government are handled by 9 congregations, each of which includes cardinals and bishops appointed for 5 years, consultants and government officials. There are no political parties, associations, business associations in the country.

The Vatican is a very popular tourist destination, the main tourist attractions in the Vatican include St. Peter's Basilica, St. Peter's Square, Vatican Museums, Sistine Chapel and Vatican Gardens [1].

Pilgrims visit the Vatican most often during religious holidays such as Christmas or Easter, or during important events such as the election of a pope.

Tourism is one of the main sources of income in the Vatican economy. Although the area of ​​the Vatican is only 44 hectares [2], in 2007, for example, about 4.3 million people visited the Vatican Museums [3].

The influx of tourists attracts criminals to the Vatican, who often carry out pickpocketing [4].

Contents

Vatican City State [edit]

According to the 1929 Lateran Accords, the Vatican is an independent state with a population of just over 800 [5] as of July 2011. The Pope has three inseparable functions:

  • As a secular sovereign in the status of a monarch (with the qualifications of a sovereign prince);
  • As a Roman bishop, he is the head of the Catholic Church and its highest ruling hierarch;
  • As a sovereign of the Vatican city-state (subsidiary territory in the status of a sovereign principality).

In antiquity, the territory of the modern Vatican, at that time called (lat.Ager Vaticanum) - marshland, was outside the city limits of Rome. Here were the villas and gardens of the mother of Emperor Caligula - Agrippina. Later, in these gardens, on the slope of the Vatican Hill, Caligula ordered the construction of a small hippodrome, which was later restored under the Emperor Nero and on which, according to legend, was crucified in 64 AD. e. Saint Peter, then buried in the necropolis (now the Vatican necropolis (English) Russian), located at that time along the main road of the Vaticanum. In 326, after the equalization of Christianity in rights with other religions, the first basilica was erected over the supposed tomb of Peter by order of the Emperor Constantine. [6]

The gardens in the Vatican Hills were first mentioned during the time of Pope Nicholas III (XIII century). At the end of the 13th century, medicinal plants, as well as vegetables and fruits were grown here. During the late Middle Ages, the gardens gradually lost their economic importance. In 1485, Pope Innocent VIII began building the Belvedere here (now part of the Vatican Museums). Pope Pius IV was a passionate lover of parks; in 1559, on his instructions, a decorative Renaissance park was laid out in the northern part of the gardens, in the center of which a Mannerist casino building was being built. In 1578, Pope Gregory XIII erected the Tower of the Winds here, in which he placed his astronomical observatory. In 1607, thanks to an additional supply of water from Lake Bracciano located 40 kilometers away, craftsmen from the Netherlands created various fountains, cascades and other water wonders in the gardens. In the second half of the 17th century, the territory of the gardens was increasingly used for botanical purposes. So, Pope Clement XI plants rare species of subtropical plants here. Since 1850, much of the gardens have been modeled after English park art. In 1888, Pope Leo XIII opened the Vatican Zoo here.

Sistine Chapel [edit]

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