Bashkortostan (Bashkiria) and its main attractions with descriptions and photos

Religions in Bashkortostan

During the New Year holidays, an influx of tourists is expected in the republic, already now there are practically no places at recreation centers. At the same time, 2020 was not the easiest time for the tourism industry. External flows decreased, travel agencies' revenues fell, and many were on the verge of bankruptcy. UFA. IF. U learned how the industry survived the pandemic.

Foreigners are gone

Inbound and outbound tourism has been significantly affected by the coronavirus pandemic. Due to the closure of most flights, the flow of citizens arriving in the republic from foreign countries has decreased. According to experts interviewed by UFA. IF. U, it fell 80%. The situation is no better with trips outside the region. Here the drop was as much as 90%. For these reasons, many travel agencies focused on external flows found themselves in an extremely difficult situation. Some had to retrain for domestic tourism, while others left the market altogether.

“Before the pandemic, 500 travel agencies were engaged in outbound tourism in the republic. With the introduction of restrictive measures, half of them simply ceased to exist, ”said tourism expert Artur Idelbaev.

“Our share of foreign tourists was about 5-7% every year, - gives an example of the director of a travel agency specializing in inbound tourism, Alexander Goncharov. - With the onset of the pandemic, their number fell to 1-2%. Most of all people came to us from Germany. There were also many from France, Spain, Italy. Now they are practically gone ",

Boom inside

But in the domestic segment of the market the opposite picture is observed: there are much more tourists in the region. So, in the summer months of 2020, about 2 million people visited Bashkiria. Indicators exceeded the same period in 2019 by almost three times - a real tourism boom. By 2024, the tourist flow is planned to be increased to 3.5 million people.

“There is an increase in tourism: these days it is impossible to book rooms in hotels and tourist centers. All seats have been sold until August 31, 2020, ”said Salavat Nafikov, Chairman of the State Tourism Committee.

“In the summer season, many tourists came to us from nearby regions - from Tatarstan, Orenburg and Chelyabinsk regions. A particularly significant flow came from Tatarstan, ”says Alexander Goncharov.

“Among the regions, Bashkiria took the palm in terms of ecological and active tourism. But here the general situation with the covid also superimposed. Traveling abroad was limited, so many decided to relax at home, ”notes Artur Idelbaev.

Overnight stay and toilet outside

Bashkiria or officially the Republic of Bashkortostan is located in the southern part of the Ural Mountains, on the border of Europe and Asia. The name comes from the name of the indigenous people Bashkir (Bashkort).

The territory of the republic is located in the basins of the Volga, Ural and Ob rivers. Bashkiria is interesting for its rich and beautiful nature with a wide variety of landscapes, as well as national flavor.

The capital of Bashkiria is the city of Ufa. The largest cities are Ufa (1.124 million people), Sterlitamak, Salavat, Neftekamsk and Oktyabrsky.

Bashkiria borders on the following territories of the Russian Federation:

  • with the Republic of Tatarstan in the west,
  • with Udmurtia in the north-west,
  • in the north - with the Perm Territory and the Sverdlovsk Region,
  • with the Chelyabinsk region in the east,
  • in the south and south-west - with the Orenburg region.

Geographical characteristics of the Republic of Bashkortostan:

Area 142,947 km² (27th place in Russia). The length from north to south is 550 km, from west to east - 430 km. Population 4,038,151 people (2020). The population density is 28.4 people/km², the share of the urban population is 62%.

The statistics nevertheless say that the ethnic composition of the population is dominated by Russians - 36%, followed by the Bashkirs - 29%. Tatars in the republic are 25%, Chuvashes - 2.7%, Mari - 2.6%, etc. In total, representatives of 160 peoples live.

There are two state languages ​​on the territory of the republic - Bashkir and Russian. There are many signs in Bashkir, or in both languages.

Nature of Bashkiria

The Republic of Bashkortostan is located on the slopes of the Southern Urals, in the Cis-Urals and in the Trans-Urals. The absolute marks range from 62 to 1640 m. The highest mountain is Yamantau (1640 m).

More than 12,000 rivers, about 2,700 lakes, ponds and reservoirs flow here. The greatest concentration of lakes is in the trans-Ural part of the republic. Among the lakes of the western part, the largest are: Aslykul (18.5 km²) and Kandrykul (12 km²).

The influx of holidaymakers has exacerbated longstanding problems in the industry.

In the south of the Ural Mountains there is the Republic of Bashkortostan - the birthplace of an ancient proud people, a land rich in natural and religious attractions. Here, Orthodoxy and Islam coexist peacefully, here people live in a large multinational family, but they honor the ancient traditions of their people.

The sights of the Republic of Bashkortostan are unique. History, traditions, colorful culture, carefully preserved nature. What sights to see in Bashkiria, as well as where you can have a good rest, we will tell you in this article.

Natural attractions of Bashkortostan (Bashkiria)

Despite the fact that there are many man-made sights in Bashkiria, the rich nature remains the unique pearl of these places. This area has everything for outdoor enthusiasts: mountain resorts, kayaking, horse riding, hiking. Bashkiria is a paradise for speleologists. Many caves of different difficulty levels are available for exploration.

  • The Bashkiria National Park is located on the southwestern slopes of the Southern Urals. The park covers a huge area - 92,000 hectares. It contains over 700 plant species. There are bears, wolves, foxes, lynxes, pine marten. Cavers go to the Kutuk-Sumgan tract. This is the longest cave in the Urals. The total length of the explored passages is about 12 km. It is interesting to visit karst lakes, mineral springs, admire the fast cold waters of the rivers. Daredevils can take risks and float in stormy streams. There are routes for beginners, suitable even for the participation of children, and there are also extreme levels. Choose what is right for you. You can enjoy a quiet rest at one of the recreation centers nestled on the banks of the Nugush reservoir. Clean forest air, emerald smooth water, picturesque views of the Bashkir nature will give you peace and tranquility.
  • Kapova Cave is a unique archaeological site, it is a karst cave about 3 km long. According to excavations in ancient times, there was a pagan temple here. The rock carvings date back to the Paleolithic, about 18,000 years old.
  • The Krasny Klyuch spring is the largest source of drinking water in Russia and the second in the world. For more than 60 km, the Yaman-Elgi River flows underground through karst canals. Punching its way out, the water is purified in a natural way, and also mineralized. The water in the spring is greenish-blue with a pleasant aftertaste and a constant temperature of +5 degrees all year round. It is especially beautiful here in warm weather, when the local landscapes turn green.
  • Lake Karagaikul, otherwise called Vorozheich, is a wonderful place. Legends say that in ancient times, on the shores of the lake, the Slavs performed rituals, wondered. Nowadays, esotericists also often come here, noting the light energy of these places. The diameter of the lake is small - 2-2.5 km, and the depth is 5-6 m. There are fish in the lake: many crucians, roach, perches, pikes. In addition, geologists discovered an outcrop of jasper deposits near the shores of the lake.
  • The Sterlitamak Shikhans are over 230 million years old and are fossilized coral reefs of the ancient Perm Sea. On their slopes you can find the fossilized remains of the ancient inhabitants of the seas. Each shihan has its own name - Tratau, Yuraktau and Kushtau. When climbing steep slopes, you should be careful, there are quite a lot of snakes here.

Outdoor activities

Ski Resorts

For those wishing to go skiing, frolic on the snow-covered slopes of Bashkiria provides a wide variety of ski resorts. Here, both beginner and professional will find a suitable track for themselves. There are plenty to choose from! Perhaps there will be a good two dozen resorts!

  • I would like to note the Abzakovo Ski Complex, located near Beloretsk. The complex is open all year round. For lovers of skiing, there are 13 slopes of varying difficulty with a total length of 18 kilometers. 3 tracks are designed for night skiing. Just imagine how delightful it is to ski with your loved ones or friends under the starry sky! In addition, the complex boasts its own zoo, water park, restaurants and cafes.
  • It is also interesting to visit the ski resort "Uyazy-Tau" on the border of Bashkiria, Tatarstan, Samara and Orenburg regions. The ski season lasts from November to April. There are 6 tracks for amateurs and professionals. The slopes are served by 2 lifts and 2 children's lifts. There is a restaurant on the top of the mountain with a stunning panorama. Having dinner here with your soul mate can be a pleasant end to the day and a wonderful memory for years to come.

Ski complex Abzakovo Equestrian sport Bashkir tribes led a semi-nomadic life, and horse breeding was an important part of the culture. Equestrian sports folk games have long been a part of the physical education of the Bashkirs and an integral part of folk festivals. For example, Kyz kyuyu ("catch up with the girl"), Kuk-bure ("gray wolf"), Kot-alyu ("catch up with luck"). Continuing the tradition, the Bashkirs still pay attention to the development of equestrian sports. There are several hippodromes on the territory of the republic:

Monuments

The peculiarity of the Republic of Bashkortostan is its multinational population. This feature determined its poly-confessional nature. At the same time, according to the Constitution of Russia, no religion can be established as a state or compulsory.

Contents

Tengrianism

In ancient times, the Bashkirs were pagan nomads and professed the ancient religion of the Turkic peoples, Tengriism [1], based on belief in the creator Tengri. Traces of the Tengri cult among the Bashkirs are visible in the materials of folklore and ethnography (proverbs, ceremonies, rituals).

The peculiarity of Tengrianism as a religion was the allocation of three zones in the Universe: heavenly, earthly and underground. Each zone was perceived as visible and invisible. The Invisible Sky consisted of three, nine or more horizontal tiers, each of which had its own deities. The Big Spirit of Heaven - Tengri lived on the highest tier. It was believed that the Universe was ruled by: Tengri Khan - the supreme deity, as well as deities - Yer-sub, Umai, Erlik, Earth, Water, Fire, Sun, Moon, Stars, Air, Clouds, Wind, Tornado, Thunder and Lightning, etc. .

Ibn Fadlan wrote that the Bashkirs have twelve "masters":

- Antonov I. V. Bashkirs in the Middle Ages. Ufa, 2012.308 p. (on p. 37)

If in Christianity, Islam, Judaism, the idea of ​​human immortality was transformed into the idea of ​​the immortality of the soul, then in Tengrianism people believed in literal resurrection, in the continuation of life on earth in the same human form.

During the strengthening of faith in Tengri on the territory of Bashkortostan, the Bashkir found Islam. However, Tengrianism was peculiarly refracted in the minds of the people, creating a historical phenomenon peculiar to the Bashkirs.

Islam

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