The modern development of both fundamental scientific knowledge and scientific and practical developments is characterized by a tendency of interpenetration: at the junction of various sciences and scientific directions, the most fruitful ideas and effective theoretical, methodological and practical models appear. And for that there is a social need, which is basically generated by the phenomenon of human consciousness, combining consumer principles, social orientation and, most importantly, irrational and abstract thinking. In this article, following the trend described above, we will reflect only on one of the particular aspects that affects the system of scientific knowledge about tourism. Our task is to consider the extremely practical and very relevant subject "Marketing of tourist destinations" in the context of the philosophical and culturological doctrine "Dialogue of Cultures" and, if possible, take another small step towards the formation of tourism science. The problematic field of analysis includes a number of dissimilar concepts: marketing, philosophy, destination, cultural studies, tourism, intercultural communication, dialogue of cultures and marketing of destinations, the ordered sequence of which is shown in Figure 1.
Fig. 1. The main heterogeneous concepts when considering the problem field "destination marketing - a dialogue of cultures"
In the problem field “marketing of destinations - dialogue of cultures”, the basis is the substantive provisions of philosophy, cultural studies, marketing and the doctrine of destinations, and intercultural communication and tourism in all its understandings are the connecting concepts (see definitions of tourism in the appendix ). At the same time, the marketing of destinations and the dialogue of cultures, on the one hand, act as self-sufficient concepts, and on the other hand, they give meaningful integrity to the entire combination of heterogeneous concepts, ordered in Fig. ...
The train of thought of public consciousness in the market-consumer environment and in scientific circles may have a similar direction. The discovery of such information flows - autonomous, but at the same time parallel in content essence - reveals the hidden mechanisms of marketing influence on consumer behavior and motivation. If you turn your eyes into a short-term retrospective, it can be noted that the doctrine of the dialogue of cultures was formed at the end of the 20th century as the basis of a new philosophical school. This became one of the results of the development of scientific philosophical thought. At the same historical time, the formation of the marketing of tourist destinations took place, which took shape as a separate branch of marketing. The public order for this area of marketing was created by the business community of the tourism industry and the regional community in connection with the development of the tourism market. The emergence of destination marketing was a reaction, firstly, to the saturation of the world market with tourist products and, secondly, to significant shifts in the structure of consumer preferences of tourists, which manifested itself in the diversification and individualization of tourist needs and led to an intensification of competition between destinations.
In the 21st century, both directions are still parallel and successfully cultivated by scientists and specialists of each direction separately. At the same time, it is obvious that the dialogue of cultures can be carried out through tourism, and the marketing of tourist destinations is designed to activate it and even direct it in a certain direction. On the other hand, the dialogue of cultures as a new foundation of philosophy with its own principles of understanding culture (and the logic of building culture itself) allows you to look at destination marketing in a new way and rethink its principles.
In a number of modern studies, tourism is considered as a way of interaction between cultures and in this context we are talking about cultural tourism. At the same time, the dialogue of cultures is one of the types of interaction of cultures along with monologue, polylogue and conflict . Monologue, dialogue and conflict of cultures through tourism can occur at ethnic, national and civilizational levels. Cultural tourism acts as the most effective way of interaction between cultures due to its creative function . It is noted that in the domestic practice of cultural tourism, the dialogue of cultures is often hampered by the oversaturation of excursion programs. During a short trip, a tourist gets acquainted with several historical eras and cultures, is overloaded with information and impressions. The result of such a trip, as a rule, becomes just a collection of photographs with sights. In addition, the restraint of the dialogue of cultures occurs due to the replacement of the authentic environment with a conserved and artificially created world of museum exhibits and a unified set of services, in which the tourist is passive and acts as a contemplator and client. As a result, the creative function of cultural tourism is suppressed.
In the latest scientific works concerning the problem of the dialogue of cultures and tourism, the emphasis is on intercultural communication [6; 7]. Dialogue of cultures (intercultural dialogue and intercivilizational dialogue) is considered as an effective form of intercultural communication, which is designed to smooth out intercultural contradictions (interethnic, interracial, interethnic, interfaith), promote sustainable development, guide the cultural policy of states in a multicultural world. The dialogue of cultures in the global tourism space ensures the achievement of interaction, mutual understanding and mutual enrichment of peoples, countries and cultures through the channels of international tourism. However, intercultural communication has a variety of meanings, including:
- the phenomenon of interaction of people from different cultures at the level of individuals and groups; - communication (involving interaction) and communicative (involving communication) paradigm of the development of various human communities and systems; - purposefully organized activities of specialists in various fields and company employees (within the framework of management strategy); - market concept for promoting goods, services, brands, innovations; - direction of scientific research; - educational paradigm for the development of national and international education and training systems; - the competence of a modern specialist .
Therefore, the dialogue of cultures as a form of intercultural communication in this interpretation can have the same meanings. Hence the broad understanding of the dialogue of cultures that can be carried out through tourism.
Thus, tourism is one of the means of implementing intercultural communication. But on the other hand, tourism is a separate social system in which people communicate with each other and with a different culture for them. Tourism is a special area of communication, including intercultural. In this context, the dialogue of cultures and tourism are related in a slightly different way. In this regard, in addition to the approaches used in the study of tourism and the dialogue of cultures, we focus on one of the provisions of the philosophical theory of the dialogue of cultures of M. Bakhtin and V. Bibler. According to him, it is possible to speak about the dialogue of cultures “if culture itself is understood as a sphere (!) Of works - not products or tools” . The dialogue of cultures is observed when a person acts as a reader, viewer, listener of a work created by the author of another culture, be it the culture of other historical eras or other civilizations. The reader, viewer, listener understands in their own way, conjectures, refines this work in their minds and, thus, acts as a co-author of this work. In dialogue, culture acts as a work of works built according to a certain logic, and this logic is formed in the mind of the reader or viewer. The dialogue of cultures is built the clearer and deeper, the greater the gap (historical, civilizational) between the work of one culture and the viewer (listener or reader) who is the bearer of another culture. This is the interpretation of culture in the theory of the dialogue of cultures. The dialogue of cultures itself implies not a simple contemplation of the elements of another culture, but their interactive construction as a single work of art in the consciousness and actions of a person.
The tour operator is not responsible for its actions
Opinions of respondents Ekzzo. u lawyers about the new agreement of the company "Biblio-Globus" were divided. Some believe that a significant proportion of its provisions contradict the legislation of the Russian Federation, each other and even common sense. Others are sure that if the case comes to trial, the court will interpret the actions of the tour operator based on the laws, and not on the rules written by him.
Still, there are a number of points that the majority agree with. First, everyone agrees that this contract is the most stringent of all the company has proposed before. Secondly, no one has any doubts that he radically changes the idea of the norms of Russian legislation on tourism.
According to Pavel Dvurechensky, head of Lawyers in Tourism, the Biblio-Globus agreement actually shifts all responsibility from the tour operator to the travel agent. The latter is contrary to the resolution of the Plenum of the Supreme Court No. 17, the law "On the basics of tourism activities", according to which the responsibility for fulfilling the obligations under the agreement on the sale of a tourist product lies entirely with the tour operator.
In particular, the very first clause of the Biblio-Globus agreement states that the travel agent is responsible for the actions of both the tour operator and the client, “at least the Tour operator was named in the transaction or entered into direct relations with deal ". Moreover, the travel agent guarantees that the tour operator will fulfill its obligations under the transaction. The tour operator himself, according to the document, is only engaged in booking services, concluding a transportation agreement and transferring the documents to the travel agent. According to Dvurechensky, this contradicts paragraph 4 of Art. 1005 of the Civil Code of the Russian Federation, and 132 FZ, according to which the tour operator forms the tourist product.
Further, according to the Plenum of the Supreme Court and the Air Code, the tour operator as a service provider is responsible for organizing charters. However, judging by the "Biblio-Globus" agreement, the tour operator is not a party to the transportation agreement concluded by the tourist and the airline, and is not responsible for the actions of the air carrier and the possible consequences that may arise in the event of cancellation, flight delay, aircraft replacement, forced change seat and other actions of the airline. But at the same time it has the right to demand an additional payment in case of an unforeseen increase in tariffs. "How is this possible? The tour operator is not a party to the contract, but may require an additional payment for the increase in fuel prices, not to mention the fact that these are its commercial risks? " - the lawyer comments.
In this case, the cancellation of the application by the travel agent is interpreted by the tour operator as failure to fulfill obligations under the contract and entails penalties. The agreement provides for the return of money directly to the client within up to 60 days. This is contrary to the Consumer Protection Law, which provides for a refund within 10 days.
Clause 4. of the contract states: when canceling a confirmed reservation, the travel agent is responsible, regardless of the reasons for the refusal. “It turns out that if a tourist changes his mind or gets sick, or dies, the travel agent is to blame. I have always believed, as you probably did, that responsibility always lies with one's actions. By signing this agreement, you automatically stop thinking like that, ”Dvurechensky notes.
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