The tourist complex of the Republic of Belarus: modern problems and a new development mechanism

The tourist complex of the Republic of Belarus: modern problems and a new development mechanism

The article analyzes the development of tourism in the Republic of Belarus, identifies the problems of the functioning of the tourist complex. The existing mechanisms are unable to solve these problems and increase its competitive potential. The geoeconomic mechanism of ensuring the competitiveness of Belarus as a destination is substantiated. It is based on the methodology of tourism geoeconomics and can be implemented on the principles of "push" and self-organization of the tourist complex. The efficiency of its application in practice is shown.

Key words: tourist complex, tourism in Belarus, geo-economic mechanism, competitiveness.

The development of tourism in Belarus in recent years has been influenced by a number of extraordinary factors, among which are the World Ice Hockey Championship held in the republic, the economic crisis in Russia and the devaluation of the Russian ruble, the reunification of Crimea by the Russian Federation, the stagnation of the Belarusian economy and devaluation of the Belarusian ruble. The tourist complex is very sensitive to these processes, and this should be taken into account by the national tourism policy. However, its approaches are outdated or not developed, which does not allow not only responding to the challenges of recent years, but also solving chronic problems of tourism management, the formation of a tourism industry, doing business in the hospitality sector, and promoting the national tourism product. The directions and parameters of tourism development are determined by the State Program for the Development of Tourism in the Republic of Belarus for 2011-2015. (State program 2011-2015). Achievement of the goals set by it is very difficult due to the action of negative factors associated with the consequences of the crisis in the economy of the republic, neighboring countries and the world as a whole. In such conditions, the agenda is the problem of increasing the competitiveness of Belarus in the tourism market. Therefore, it is required to search for and create new mechanisms for the development of the tourist complex, corresponding to the economic realities of today.

The purpose of the article is to substantiate a new mechanism for the development of the tourist complex of the republic, which makes it possible to effectively solve the main problems of its development and is based on the modern methodology of tourism sciences.

Analysis of the development of the tourist complex in Belarus

The current state of tourism development in Belarus

In 2014, there was a “break” in several key indicators of Belarusian tourism statistics (the number of hotels and similar accommodation facilities, their occupancy, the geographical structure of the outbound tourist flow). Investment expectations in the hotel business related to the increase in tourist flow in connection with the 2014 World Ice Hockey Championship did not materialize: the number of hotels increased by 50, or 10%, compared to 2013, and the number of guests accommodated decreased by 66 thousand. ., or by 3.7%, which led to a decrease in hotel occupancy to a historic low of 34% (earlier the sector was steadily "holding" above or about 40%). On the market for organized outbound tourism, the demand for recreation in Ukraine and Russia fell: travel agencies sent 79.9 thousand tourists to the CIS countries, which is 63% less than in 2013. The flow to non-CIS countries increased by 33% and reached 660.7 thousand. In general, organized outbound tourism grew in 2014 by 4.5% to 740.5 thousand. The number of travel agencies for the year increased by 15.6% to 1254, and the subjects of agroecotourism - by 8.3% until 2037. At the same time, on the domestic routes, the market lost 20 thousand consumers and amounted to only 56 thousand served. Exports under the item “travel” increased in comparison with 2013 from 791.4 to 867.6 million US dollars, and imports - insignificantly, by 5 million US dollars, but much higher than exports, forming a negative balance of 1,158. 7 million dollars

The absolute scale of the tourism industry is reflected in the statistics on the number of tourism organizations and accommodation facilities (Table 1). Their number in the period 2000-2014. in general has grown significantly. The number of travel agencies (organizations engaged in tourist activities) during this time tripled and amounted to 1254 entities, and the total number of collective accommodation facilities (hotels, sanatoriums, rest homes, tourist centers, etc.) increased 1.7 times.

Table 1. Organizations engaged in tourist activities and collective accommodation facilities, units Companies Travel industrii200020052008200920102011201220132014Organizatsii engaged in tourism activities, including vsego41540257772078379195810851254V involved: the tour operator and travel agent deyatelnostyu69688297100130142160turagentskoy deyatelnostyu93104145188225273387519turoperatorskoy deyatelnostyu240405493498466555556575Kollektivnye accommodation facilities, vsego574600627655693865919945996V including: hotels and similar facilities razmescheniya256279312331359444471481530sanatorno resort and wellness organizatsii318321315324334421448464466 <

Source: Statistical Yearbook of the Republic of Belarus 2015. Minsk: National Statistical Committee of the Republic of Belarus, 2015.

The dynamics of the number of certain types of enterprises in the travel industry over the last decade (2005-2014) is shown in Fig. 1.

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