Annotation. The article discusses the issues of increasing the competitiveness of the Russian economy through the development of the tourist and recreational business and its inclusion in the world market of tourist services. The necessity of using a cluster approach to managing the development of the domestic tourist and recreational business is substantiated, the basic principles of the formation and development of a tourist and recreational cluster are formulated.
Keywords: international market, tourist services, tourist and recreational business, cluster approach, tourist and recreational cluster, hotel chain.
The process of globalization of the tourist market began in the 1980s. So, conglomerates appeared in this area. For example, the German company Preussag, which until 1997 was not engaged in the travel business at all, given its high profitability, acquired the leading tour operator in Germany - TUI, hotel chains in Spain, shares of a number of travel agencies in France, Great Britain, Italy, Austria and Belgium. The hotel industry also has large associations that use complex forms of management (rent, franchise, etc.).
There are significant tourist and recreational resources in our country. In this regard, it should be noted that the tourist and recreational business ideally meets the requirements that make it possible to classify this industry as a priority area for the development of the Russian economy. The main serious limitation here is the high competition in the world market of tourist and recreational services.
The tourist and recreational business in Russia can become competitive only if the system for managing the development of this sphere is fundamentally changed. It is imperative that modern management technologies replace outdated methods.
The cluster approach is one of such new modern management technologies. In economic research, the use of the term "cluster" is associated with the name of the American scientist M. Porter. Summarizing his research on the competitive advantages of the 10 most developed countries in the world, M. Porter came to the conviction that “national prosperity is not inherited - it is created” and “the only reasonable concept of competitiveness at the national level is to increase labor productivity” .
The essence of the cluster approach is that competitive national industries are linked into what can be called "clusters" (bundles), consisting of industries that depend on each other.
M. Porter defines a cluster as "a system of interconnected firms and organizations, the significance of which as a whole exceeds the simple sum of its constituent parts" .
Clusters win the competition because of the following:
- increasing labor productivity of the firms and industries included in them; - increasing the ability of firms participating in the cluster to innovate and, thus, to increase labor productivity; - attracting new businesses that support innovation and expand the boundaries of the cluster.
Many have probably heard the term "cluster" in the economic sphere. But not everyone knows and understands its exact meaning. This concept is also applicable to tourism activities.
Tourism cluster is an association of organizations providing services in the field of tourism. It includes small and large firms that constantly interact with each other. They are located on a single territory within one region. The work is carried out both in the domestic (travel within the country) and in the external direction (foreign travel).
The tourism business has a significant impact on the country's economy. Therefore, its importance cannot be underestimated. For dynamically developing countries, tourism is becoming a criterion for the growth of economic indicators.
Tourist clusters in Russia today are created with the aim of creating competitive tourist services, while using modern business technologies.
The cluster structure is a hierarchical system. The leading link is the management company. The state delegates to it the authority to manage certain economic territories. The relationship is based on partnership. Depending on the direction of development of the tourism cluster, financial support is provided in the required amounts.
The management company, in turn, regulates the work of such divisions:
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