Domestic tourism is officially recognized as one of the four main sectors of non-resource exports in Russia. Understanding what is happening with the Russian tourism industry. Is the demand for domestic tourism growing? What needs to be done for the integrated development of the industry?
A strategic task has been set for Russian tourism, education, healthcare and transport to increase non-resource exports of services to 100 billion rubles. The growth of tourism revenues should ensure the growing contribution of this industry to the country's GDP and reach the level of developed countries. Many market participants and other interested parties argue that the growth of income from tourism is impossible without state support due to its serious imperfection in our country. Indeed, such a problem exists. However, tourism infrastructure alone is not enough for tourism development. A detailed analysis shows that, with rare exceptions, a direct correlation can be traced between budget investments in the infrastructure of tourist regions and the growth in demand for these regions.
The main driver for the development of the tourism industry for the period from 2011 to 2018 was to be the Federal Target Program (FTP) "Development of domestic and inbound tourism in the Russian Federation (2011-2018)". Budget funding in the program was mainly allocated for the development of tourism infrastructure. Monitoring the effectiveness of the program showed that with the growth of the main statistical indicators of the tourism industry for the period under study, such as the size of the internal and inbound tourist flow, the number of collective accommodation facilities and a number of other targets for the implementation of the FTP, the indicators for the development of tourism infrastructure were significantly violated. According to the Accounts Chamber, out of 30 objects of supporting infrastructure of tourism clusters invested at the expense of budgetary funds, only 22 have been commissioned. Of the 108 objects of tourism infrastructure planned to be created at the expense of private investors, 52 objects have not been created.
Nevertheless, in May 2018, a new concept of the federal target program for 2019–2025 was approved with a projected amount of funding from the federal budget in the amount of about 70 billion rubles. At the same time, for each ruble of budgetary funds, it is necessary to attract at least 2.2 rubles of off-budget investments. As indicated in the concept, the end result of the program will be an increase in the total tourist flow in Russia to 93 million people (an increase of 28%), which will allow achieving the planned increase in the contribution of tourism to the gross domestic product of the Russian Federation by more than 70% by the end of 2025.
2018 was marked by the holding of such a major sporting event as the FIFA World Cup, which was held in Russia for the first time. Immediately 11 cities of Russia, which hosted the football championship, received budget and private funds for the period from 2013 to 2018 for the development of infrastructure. Unlike the 2014 Olympics and 2013 Universiades, most regions managed not to get into additional debts, since the federal budget and private business covered the main expenses for preparing for the 2018 FIFA World Cup. Officially, Russia's spending on preparations for the 2018 FIFA World Cup amounted to about 1.2 trillion. rubles, which were invested in the construction of sports and transport infrastructure, arrangement of utilities and engineering networks, telecommunications and energy infrastructure. Prior to the main football championship, high-quality hotels and hostels, good restaurants, comfortable transport logistics appeared, the airports were modernized.
For Russian regions, the new infrastructure should generate additional tax revenues and reduce future capital expenditures. A McKinsey study published by the Government of the Russian Federation provides calculations according to which the operation of the infrastructure built for the 2018 FIFA World Cup and an increase in tourist traffic can bring an additional 80-110 billion rubles to investments and 120-180 billion rubles. rubles to GDP annually over the next five years. However, is this so?
According to the results of the spring-summer season of 2018, for the first time, Russia ranked second in popularity among domestic tourists. Regions of Russia leading in terms of the volume of tourist flow in 2018: Moscow - 23.5 million (an increase of 9% in relation to 2017); Krasnodar Territory - 17 million, including Sochi - about 6 million (6% growth); Moscow region - 15 million (7% growth); St. Petersburg - 8.5 million (13% growth), Crimea - 6.8 million (28% growth).
Obviously, the indisputable advantage of Moscow is its status of the capital, which means that the contribution of tourism revenues to the region's GDP is about 4% with the prospect of growth to 8-10% by 2020. In addition, Moscow is distinguished by the significant investments of the authorities in transport logistics and arrangement of urban spaces, navigation in a foreign language, and a rich program of cultural and leisure activities. Moscow is a region whose economic policy is aimed at the comprehensive development of the tourism industry, and which at the same time has qualified management personnel, public organizations and industry associations that support the interests of the development of the industry. The demand for the region is growing, and Moscow is working to increase the capacity. For example, the modernization of Moscow airports for the 2018 FIFA World Cup and after its completion contributes to a higher passenger traffic.
"Dictionary of Business Terms" defines infrastructure as a complex of economic sectors that provide conditions for the production of goods: energy, communications, transport, education, healthcare. In the dictionary-reference book "Tourism, hospitality, service" infrastructure is defined "as a complex of sectors of the economy serving and creating conditions for the location and operation of the main production, as well as the life of the population." That is, infrastructure in the economic sense is understood as a certain set of auxiliary industries (industries), although necessary for the functioning of the main production, but participating in this production only indirectly. The "auxiliary" nature of use is also confirmed etymologically: the meaning of this term in Latin is derived from infra (below, below) and structure (structure, device). In full accordance with this approach, in the "Dictionary-Directory", tourist infrastructure is defined as "a set of auxiliary industries and institutions organizing and serving the tourism industry and tourism activities in general."
At the same time, such phrases as "social infrastructure", "industrial infrastructure", "sectoral infrastructure", "urban infrastructure", "transport infrastructure", etc. have become common. With all the substantive differences of the concepts used, infrastructure is understood as a certain system of elements that allows a certain holistic education to function. In this sense, “market infrastructure” can be understood as a set of units of the national economy, the functioning of which is aimed at ensuring the normal operation of the market and its development. The structure of a market economy includes various organizations and institutions (trade, banking, stock exchange, transport and others) that support the activities of various sectors of the economy.
But in the same dictionary-directory "Tourism, hospitality, service" transport infrastructure is treated as "a network of roads and railways, as well as airports and sea (river) ports. The qualitative characteristic of a transport infrastructure is the presence modern comfortable vehicles ". Here we have a different approach to the definition. Transport is a completely independent branch of the economy, and in the interpretation of the above definition, transport infrastructure is no longer viewed as something outside the main production, but as inherent in it, as something that, in fact, creates a transportation service.
So what characterizes the term "tourism infrastructure": a complex of auxiliary industries that support the activities of the tourism industry, or the system of this industry itself? A general idea of the composition of tourism infrastructure can be made on the basis of the definition of the tourism industry, formulated in the Federal Law No. 132-FZ "On the Basics of Tourist Activity in the Russian Federation". "Tourism industry - a set of hotels and other accommodation facilities, means of transport, sanatorium and resort treatment and recreation facilities, catering facilities, entertainment facilities and facilities, educational, business, medical and recreational, physical culture and sports and other purposes, organizations that provide tour operator and travel agency activities, operators of tourist information systems, as well as organizations providing the services of tour guides (guides), guide-translators and instructors-guides. " Based on the first approach, it is necessary to include in the tourism infrastructure all those enterprises and organizations whose activities are not limited only to the framework of the tourism sector. Then the tourism sector will include organizations that carry out tour operator and travel agency activities, provide the services of tour guides (guides), guide-translators and instructors, as well as operators of tourism information systems, if only they specialize exclusively in tourism activities. But most of the listed organizations do not themselves provide for the consumption of services required by a tourist, and, thus, are represented in the consumption of a tourist product only indirectly.
Tourism infrastructure is understood as a complex of existing structures and networks of industrial, social and recreational purposes, intended for the functioning of the tourism sector, while considering the tourism infrastructure as an integral part of the tourism industry.
Tourist infrastructure can be presented as a material basis for the production of a tourist product. The material basis of tourism in a broad sense is formed by a complex complex of industries, sub-sectors and types of activities of material production and the socio-cultural sphere, which either directly satisfy the various needs of tourists, or create the necessary conditions for this. Of all its enterprises, only a relatively small part specializes in the production of goods and services intended exclusively for the personal consumption of tourists, while most of them also satisfy the needs of the local population and contribute to the growth of tourist consumption indirectly. Thus, to meet the diverse needs of tourists, goods and services of a large number of enterprises and industries that are not technologically connected are needed. Some serve mainly tourists, the second - tourists and the local population, and the third ensure the functioning of the former and the latter. The mixed functions of these enterprises make it impossible for their clear, formal organization within the framework of a single branch of the economy. The list of the main enterprises involved in the production of a tourist product can be presented in the following table.
Table 1 - List of enterprises contributing to the production of a tourist product
1. Accommodation Providers
3. Transport service firms
4. Travel agencies for the development, implementation and maintenance of a tourist product
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