In this unique country, education is a cult supported by the family, state and society.
Japan has a very special method of raising children.
Up to 5 years old they treat a child like an emperor, never punishing him or even raising his voice at him, after 5 and up to 15 - like a slave, applying almost stick discipline, and after 15 - as an equal.
There is a strict subordination in Japanese families and in society. The man is the unconditional head of the family, the mother brings up the children and creates comfort in the house.
In Japan, elders are respected - both in age and in official position. The peculiarities of education in Japan are strict adherence to traditions and centuries-old way of life.
Kindergarten in Japan is optional. Almost all preschool institutions here are private.
The upbringing of children is mainly carried out by mothers.
The mother never resists the will of the child, she can only warn him about the danger. The mother influences the Japanese child in an indirect way: she can show that she is upset by his behavior or oppose his actions to the rules accepted in society.
Japan is a country of groups and communities: being outside a certain circle of people, being isolated and alone is a tragedy for a Japanese.
Children play, learn, sleep and eat in the same room.
The groups here are small, 5-6 people each, and the composition of the children changes every six months.
The centuries-old traditions and art of Japan are of great interest to European tourists.
You can appreciate the traditions and heritage of the land of the rising sun by going on a trip to Japan.
Japan is an Asian country where culture is distinguished by its identity, formed over thousands of years. It seems as if globalization has not affected the way Japanese people live. Arriving here and wishing to get to know the national flavor, the traveler should pay attention to such layers and landmarks of Japanese art as:
The art of Japan, which tourists can appreciate, is unique design, numerous theaters, search for harmony in details, and especially reverent attitude to philosophy. Who knows what will conquer the atmosphere of this country more strongly?
Every country has a special place for religion, and Japan is no exception. The majestic Buddhist temples in Japan were built with the main goal of preserving spiritual traditions. The sacred architecture has unique parameters that make it stand out from other attractions. Some of the most unique temples include:
Not only Buddhist temples in Japan are recommended for visiting, but also objects of Shintoism, including the Meiji Temple in Tokyo, Itsukushima Temple on the island of the same name, the Tosegu shrine. There are also Orthodox churches in this country - the Nikorai-Do temple, the Hakodate Sunday temple, the Transfiguration temple in Sapporo.
Natural objects, for example, Fujiyama, a visiting card of the country, are of genuine interest in Japan. But also man-made objects of culture and art are interesting for tourists:
Universities in Japan are a concentration of advanced laboratories, in which more than one innovation in the field of medicine and technology has seen the light. Today, this state is considered the legislator of new trends in science and the forge of professional personnel in the field of IT, engineering and technology. At the end of the last century, it was almost impossible to get to study at a Japanese university. It was only through a government program to internationalize universities that talented youth from other countries gained access to one of the most efficient higher education systems in the world.
The Japanese educational system has been closed for a long time, which allowed it to form its own model and achieve high efficiency in teaching the younger generation. At the end of the 19th century, integration with Western models began, as a result of which the learning process acquired the following look:
Before the child sits at the school desk, he will have to socialize in a childcare center or kindergarten. And although this stage is not mandatory, many parents still prefer to give their baby to experienced teachers.
Preschool institutions are of public and private type. Both adhere to the same programs and pricing policy - $ 100-500 per month.
Children go to school at the age of 6. Education in state institutions is free of charge, even for foreign children. A private school can cost $ 3,500.
Children start wearing school uniforms only in high school. Until this moment, their appearance is not regulated by the rules.
After completing secondary education, students can apply for admission to higher education institutions. Education in them is divided into several stages:
Studies in veterinary and medical faculties last at least 6 years. Most of the teaching is in Japanese, but some universities also offer English programs.
Those interested can graduate from one of the many language schools. Here, students are offered a wide range of programs: from short-term (no more than 3 months) to long-term programs lasting 2 years.
Entering a Japanese university
The education system in Japan is considered one of the oldest. The origins of development lie in the 6th-7th centuries, when the mainland education system from developed Asian countries was brought to the island. Thus, the peculiarities of the country's legal system led to the use of the Chinese education system as the basis, which remains (slightly changed) today.
Preschool education includes such institutions: nurseries, special schools and kindergartens. Children continue to be admitted to nurseries up to 6 years of age, but no education is provided in this group of institutions. This fact determines the subordination of the nursery not to the Ministry of Education and Science, but to the Ministry of Labor. Kindergartens help prepare children before going to school. The age of children who can go to kindergartens is from 3 to 6 years old. As in domestic countries, children are in the nursery full day, while in kindergartens - in the first half of the day, but everything may depend on the work of the parents. The uniform of all kindergarten pupils is compulsory.
The school system in Japan is represented by three stages: in elementary school they study for 6 years, in secondary - 3 years, in senior - 3 more years. There is not an end-to-end, but an internal system of classes - the fourth grade of primary school, the first grade of secondary school, etc., and parallel classes are denoted by letters of the Latin alphabet.
The academic year in Japan is divided into three terms. The first trimester lasts from April 6 to July 20, after which there is a long summer vacation, the second trimester begins on September 1 and lasts until December 26, and from January 7 to March 25, the third trimester lasts. The last week before the first trimester is reserved for the transition from one class to another.
Before entering primary school (at the age of 6), children are required to know the basics of arithmetic and master the technique of reading katakana and hirogana. Elementary school teaches math, Japanese, science, social studies (etiquette, history and ethics), household, music, physical education, and the visual arts. As a result of the training, students pass exams on knowledge of 1,006 out of 1945 state kanji symbols. secondary school continues to study the same sciences, but English is added and special subjects of choice (depending on the school). The most difficult subjects in high school are considered Japanese and English, as well as mathematics.
The special education system in Japan is almost similar to domestic and Western models. But getting a vocational education is quite difficult because skilled workers are highly valued. Dzyuku stands apart - "schools of skill" or tutoring schools. Advertising of such schools is carried out from the 7th grade, with each student signing up for those courses that suit him. Classes are held 2-3 times a week in the evening. Teachers in these schools study the school material in detail and study additional material to successfully pass the exams at school.
Let's listen to eyewitness testimonies and think about which educational traditions can be adopted, and which ones are better left in the past.
Many people think that we cannot understand the Japanese, because, as Kipling wrote, “West is West, East is East,” and the Land of the Rising Sun is almost another planet. Because of this, the admiration of foreigners for the Japanese technological genius and amazing efficiency is combined with a slight distrust: these are the Japanese, they have "everything in their own way." Japanese schoolchildren and students are also surrounded by myths, in which they either massively study martial arts and pass exams with only A's, then get nervous breakdowns, gather in street gangs and lock themselves in a room for several years.
Idealizing Japanese education and upbringing would be as much a mistake as the opposite extreme. Japanese society is still reaping the fruits of the bubble economy, and evidence of breakthrough technological progress in education is just a few examples. Life in Tokyo and small cities is very different, patriarchal sentiments are still very strong: for example, it is extremely difficult for women to achieve leadership positions or make a career in the IT industry. Strict discipline is a consequence of feudal relations, which negatively affects the creativity and critical thinking of specialists. Many Japanese students find the education system outdated, clumsy and lifeless.
Perhaps there are not so many differences between Russia and Japan? If we look at Japan not as an exotic curiosity, but as a society facing similar problems and challenges, we can not only get to know the Japanese better, but also think about how cultural traditions affect the domestic education system. After all, when viewed from Kipling's homeland, Russia will also be in the east.
Ksenia Shcherbakova has been living and working in Japan for a long time, and also received a degree there. She talked about how Japanese education is seen from the inside.
Higher education in Japan is paid and quite expensive. Private universities tend to pay higher than public ones, but they are easier to enroll in. There are loans for education and various funds, including state ones, which can partially pay for the education of especially talented children. There are many centralized portals that allow you to search for scholarships across the country.
Currently, Japan has a particularly large number of programs to support international students. It can be a scholarship that covers education, and a scholarship that is handed out - that is, it can be spent at the discretion of the student. If you are a smart foreigner, then you can very well get a job in Japan by applying for several scholarships.
The higher the level of education at the university, the higher its prestige, and the higher the requirements for entrance exams. As a rule, requirements are higher in public universities than in private ones. The most difficult to access are the University of Tokyo and the University of Kyoto (can be compared with Moscow State University and St. Petersburg State University) - the main universities of the new and old capitals. Education is very expensive, and a diploma from a prestigious university almost 100% guarantees a high income and a prestigious career in the future. Therefore, any family tries to send their children to the best university for which the child's talent and the parents' money are enough.
Poor families often cannot afford to prepare their children for college as well as wealthy ones. Therefore, in Japan, a situation is gradually developing in which the quality of education becomes a function of family income, which leads to class stratification.
The organization of the educational process does not differ much from the Russian one. There are compulsory and optional subjects. A lot of practical exercises, the assessment is almost everywhere test. There are relatively few seminars where students have the opportunity to discuss and express their own opinions. Your own opinion is not encouraged.
Many universities enter into contracts with international universities, which allows students to leave for a semester or two to another country, or to host foreign students. Changing a specialty is problematic, but possible - with the proper involvement of the student himself.