Education and tourism: aspects of interaction

Education and tourism: aspects of interaction

Annotation. the article reveals the reasons and forms of interaction between education and tourism, as well as the results of their synergy. A methodological approach to the definition of educational tourism is proposed. The contribution of the tourism industry (theme parks) to the development of theory and methods of active learning is highlighted. The possibilities of using pedagogical technologies in the promotion of tourist products are shown.

Keywords: tourism, education, educational technologies, educational tourism.

There is a strong relationship between education and tourism, which stems from common goals. Both education and tourism as a system are "saturated" with the philosophy of humanism. They are created in the name and for the good of Man and, in their essence, are "human-filled", anthropocentric. The choice of a person-personality as a leading force, a semantic and target center is not a simple tribute to the fashion for humanistic principles, but reflects an understanding of the fact that the entire system of relations, in this case in education and tourism, is both a process and a result of the interaction of personal wills , personal choices of behavior, personal motivations and limitations. This primacy of the personal component is expressed in the fact that education and tourism are ultimately aimed at bringing up a harmoniously developed personality. The strength of each such person is a guarantee of the strength of the entire society, of all mankind, a condition for social progress.

It is natural that in Russia organized travel and excursions were initially associated with the cognitive (scientific) and educational spheres of life. In 1777 the newspaper "Moskovskie vedomosti" published the "Plan of an undertaking journey to foreign lands" by V. Gensh. He intended to gather a group of young people from the nobility to travel to Western Europe - Germany, Switzerland, Italy and France - in order to get acquainted with educational institutions, museums and businesses. The travel plan, developed by W. Gensch, was the first attempt to carry out a collective trip abroad for tourist purposes. In his endeavor, V. Gensch was far ahead of T. Cook, who is considered one of the founders of modern forms of tourism organization [15, p. ].

At about the same time, the link between research, educational activities and excursion business is being strengthened. In Russia, the first excursions were conducted among schoolchildren in order to study the nature of their native land. Gradually, they became an integral part of school curricula and since 1786 have been enshrined in the Charters of educational institutions [11, p. 57]. The reports on the excursions, written by teachers and often printed in separate books, were, in terms of the content and accessibility of the material presented, the first textbooks on local history. In the XIX - early XX century. prominent scientists D. Mendeleev, N. Przhevalsky, K. Timiryazev, I. Pavlov and others

On the rise of the excursion movement in St. Petersburg in 1907, under the Russian Society of Tourists, a special commission "Educational excursions in Russia" was created, under which training courses for guides were working. By the end of 1915, there were already about 100 such institutions in Russia [13, p. five].

Methodological assistance in the development of student excursions was initially provided by pedagogical magazines, which gave advice on organizing excursion work, and then specialized periodicals "Russian excursionist", "Excursion bulletin", etc. There was a special literature of a methodological nature. In the book School Trips, Their Meaning and Organization, edited by B. Raikov and G. Bocha [14] proposed an approximate plan of excursions for the entire cycle of schooling [11, p. 57]. The school excursion methodology developed at that time was widely discussed at pedagogical congresses and meetings [2], which testifies to the attachment of special importance to student excursions in the educational process.

At present, it is legitimate to talk about educational tourism as an independent segment of the global tourism market and a type of tourism with a wide variety of forms, special geography, a range of actors involved, etc. The World Tourism Organization identifies education as one of the priority goals of tourism [7, p. 26]. In the absence of a generally accepted definition of educational tourism, it can be considered as a kind of "conceptual framework", the internal space of which is filled with specific human activities - obtaining professional education outside of permanent residence, studying a foreign language in special educational programs abroad, internships and advanced training, etc. Of course, tourism cannot be reduced to a simple list of activities. Nevertheless, this extended "semi-definition" gives an idea of ​​the approximate boundaries of educational tourism. A more precise definition of educational tourism is difficult due, in particular, to the actively proceeding process of hybridization - the combination of classical educational tourism with leisure (entertainment) forms of tourist activity and business travel.

Tourism for education

In the specialized literature, special attention is paid to the importance and place of educational tourism in the modern system of continuous education of a person. In individual articles and dissertations, it is considered in the context of the search for new technologies, methods, innovative forms of education that ensure democracy, social openness, integrity, continuity, flexibility and variability, as well as the completeness of education [see, for example: 10]. It is emphasized that educational tourism as an interdisciplinary phenomenon has significant pedagogical potential and serves as an effective tool for a person to acquire knowledge, skills and abilities throughout his life. The authors propose certain forms of disclosing this potential for different age and social groups of the population, including “activity and stage forms for children of preschool and primary school age, design and research form for schoolchildren, academic mobility for students, advanced training for working specialists, social rehabilitation for the elderly and people with disabilities ”[5, p. 7].

Some authors reveal in more detail the possibilities of using educational tourism for the successful formation of competencies defined by educational standards for training specialists in specific areas - biology, ecology, geography, history, linguistics, physical culture, tourism, etc. [9] ... For example, in higher education in geography, educational practices are usually carried out in the form of educational tourist (sightseeing) trips. In the corresponding State educational standard, they are enshrined as a compulsory form of education and are aimed at mastering the methods of geographical disciplines.

Below, using a specific example, we will consider the contribution of the world tourism industry (entertainment sector) to the development of the education system, in particular, the theory and methods of active learning. In 1948, the W. Disney company introduced the concept of "edutainment" (from the English. “Education” - education and “entertainment” - entertainment) - learning through entertainment, with which experts associate a new stage in the development of the game teaching method. Currently, “edutainment has absorbed the best of such areas of knowledge as: pedagogy (for example, pedagogical principles); psychology (communication theories); informatics (modern information and communication technologies) ”[3, p. 8]. This type of teaching is characterized by a number of features: an emphasis on hobby, the formation of a student's persistent interest in the educational process, motivation through entertainment, play as the basic principle of teaching.

The principle of learning through entertainment has been brilliantly implemented and developed at Disneyland, and then other theme parks around the world. Universal for both children and adults, it helps attract adults to theme parks, unite people of different ages and strengthen the image of theme parks as family recreation centers. For example, in the Sea World parks ("Sea World"; USA) educational content is present in all entertainment programs: during the marine animal show, visitors can get acquainted with valuable scientific data on the behavior of dolphins, killer whales, seals obtained during their training.

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