This is one of the largest regions in Eastern Siberia. Its area is almost 5% of the Russian territory. The enormous extent explains the diversity of landscapes and nature. Most of it is occupied by taiga forests, plateaus, remnants of steppes, river valleys. But the main attraction of the Irkutsk region is Lake Baikal. Thanks to him, tourism is widely developed here.
Baikal is included in the list of world heritage because of its unique natural landscapes, clear waters and a huge variety of flora and fauna.
The Irkutsk Region is located in the basin of Lake Baikal, a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Therefore, most of it belongs to protected areas of federal significance. The list of nature reserves in the Irkutsk region is small, but their significance is great. The reserve is created with the aim of preserving the natural complex in its original form. Hunting and any economic activity is completely prohibited here.
The first reserve - Barguzinsky - was created, as mentioned above, in Russia in 1916. The closest reserves of the Irkutsk region appeared in the 80s. They cover a large territory of the Baikal coastline and were created in order to preserve the uniqueness of flora and fauna.
These are large territories with unique natural objects. All conditions for recreation and tourism have been created here, preserving the originality of picturesque landscapes and not harming flora and fauna. Human economic activity is limited and sometimes completely prohibited, except for the use of nature for agricultural purposes for the needs of the local population. Unlike nature reserves, tourists are allowed to enter the territory of the national park. There are parking facilities and tourist routes.
The first national park was created in the USA in 1872 - this is Yellowstone. The largest in the world - Northeast Greenland National Park has an area of more than 950 thousand square kilometers. And in Russia, the largest national park is located in the Irkutsk region.
This is a protected area of federal significance. Created to protect the unique natural world of the western shore of Lake Baikal. It includes almost a quarter of the length of its coastline - about 470 km. Pribaikalsky National Park is the most visited tourist area in the region. Of all the reserves and national parks of the Irkutsk region, it is most rich in rare species of plants and animals. The area of the park is more than 400 thousand hectares - this is the largest protected area in Russia. It includes a narrow coastline - from 3 to 20 km, Primorsky ridge, Tazheranskaya steppe, Bolshaya river basin and partly Olkhon island.
All reserves and nat. parks of the Irkutsk region are characterized by a rich variety of flora and fauna, some of which are not found anywhere else, and magnificent views of nature. But this national park attracts tourists the most. Aya and Peschanaya bays, majestic cliffs of the Primorsky ridge, relict steppes and salt lakes are located here. At the source of the Angara there is the largest wintering of waterfowl in Siberia.
Today, January 11, is the Day of Reserves and National Parks of Russia. It was on this day in 1917 that one of the oldest reserves in Russia, the Barguzinsky State Natural Biosphere Reserve, was created. It is noteworthy that this reserve was included in the interregional media project "Protected Necklace of Baikal". The project unites reserves and national parks located in three constituent entities of the Russian Federation - in the Irkutsk region, the Republic of Buryatia and the Trans-Baikal Territory.
The area of the Baikal natural territory is huge: it is 386 thousand square meters. km, which exceeds the total area of all reserves and national parks in Russia. Today, there are 5 reserves, 4 national parks and 23 reserves within its boundaries.
The Barguzinsky Nature Reserve is located on the northeastern coast of Lake Baikal. Despite the threat of environmental disaster, this piece of the planet still retains its pristine beauty. The primary task of the reserve was the protection of the Barguzin sable. Typical taiga animals include brown bear, reindeer, elk, wolverine, otter, hazel grouse, stone grouse. Rare birds include the white-tailed eagle and osprey.
50 species of fish are known in the waters of Lake Baikal, including two species of golomyanka (endemic to Lake Baikal), 25 - gobies, as well as omul, whitefish, taimen, lenok, etc. Among the plants, 7 are rare. There are many hot springs with a temperature of 40-76 degrees.
At present, the territory of the Barguzinsky Nature Reserve is a standard of purity and pristine nature of the Baikal nature.
The park was created in 1986 and is located on the eastern coast of Lake Baikal. It includes the Svyatoy Nos peninsula, the southern part of the western slope of the Barguzinsky ridge, the Ushkany and Chivyrkuisky islands, the water area of the Chivyrkuisky and Barguzinsky gulfs. Taiga animals live - red deer, musk deer, brown bear, sable, wood grouse, hazel grouse, black grouse. There are many waterfowl and near-water birds on Lake Arangatui. On the Ushkany Islands there is a rookery of the Baikal seal. Among the animals and birds there are those listed in the Red Book of Russia: peregrine falcon, black crane, golden eagle, black stork, white-tailed eagle, etc.
There are “singing” sands on the territory of the park, emitting a creak when walking, reminiscent of the creak of leather shoes. When the wind blows, the sands make a loud whistling sound.
There are many caves in the sheer cliffs of the Svyatoi Nos Peninsula. Three mineral springs are very popular: Zmeiny, Kulinye swamps and Nechaevsky.
The Zabaikalsky National Park combines unique natural areas, picturesque and varied landscapes, a rich fauna with ample opportunities for recreation, educational and sports tourism, and recreational fishing.
The name of the village is interpreted in different ways: according to one version, this word means "wet place" - and indeed, these places receive the largest amount of precipitation on Lake Baikal. According to the second version, Tankhoy is a "bend, bend". The terrain in the Tankhoy area is really winding. Both versions claim to be reliable, but it is the Buryat etymology of the word "Tankhoi" that unites them.
This place might not have become famous, if not for the construction of the Trans-Siberian Railway. Moreover, it was originally planned to call the station "Sokol". Several settlements arose near the station at once. In 1899, they began to build a pier for steamers, and then a harbor for an icebreaker ferry. Before the construction of the Circum-Baikal Railway, the giant icebreaker-ferry "Baikal" brought trains here.
The station itself was officially founded in 1904. After trains began to run regularly through the station, the village of Tankhoy itself began to grow rapidly. You can still see buildings of the early 20th century here. For example, the remains of port buildings, two water towers and a number of civilian buildings in the village.
A highway also passes through Tankhoi, which from the very beginning made the village an important logistics center halfway between Irkutsk and Ulan-Ude.
In 1969, the Baikal State Natural Biosphere Reserve was founded. Tankhoi became his central estate. This radically changed the life of the village.
The reserve was originally designed as part of a chain of specially protected natural areas that were supposed to protect the ecosystem of Lake Baikal. Now almost the entire coast of Lake Baikal is under protection, including its southern part. To some extent, the opening of the reserve was supposed to compensate for the negative activities of the Baikal Pulp and Paper Mill. But the main task now is the protection of undisturbed cedar forests.
The reserve occupies the central part of the Khamar-Daban mountain range and goes to the southeastern coast of Lake Baikal.
More than a thousand species of higher vascular plants grow in it, and about 70% of the territory is covered with forests. Some of these plants are included in the Red Data Book of Buryatia, and a few are included in the Red Data Book of the Russian Federation. There are ten endemic species, including the endemic of the Khamar-Daban ridge - the Baikal Swertia, a beautiful plant with dark purple flowers from the gentian family, found mainly in high-altitude meadows. 90 species of woody and woody-shrub plants grow here.
Animals such as otter, wild boar, roe deer, elk, brown bear and, of course, sable are under protection. These places are not crowded and wooded, therefore in the Baikal Biosphere Reserve it is possible to preserve such a species diversity. In addition to large animals, birds live here: wood grouse, black kite, jug, tundra partridge, crested wasp eater. In the reserve, you can also find such species as the Far Eastern tree frog, sharp-faced frog, viviparous lizard.
Most people outside Russia and almost everyone in the country know about the existence of Lake Baikal. It is the deepest, purest and oldest, and is rightfully considered the most beautiful creation of nature. The coast of the lake and the unique nature reserves and parks of Lake Baikal located there are striking in their diversity: the picturesque nature is replaced by the majestic taiga, gradually turning into the mountains.
The Baikal Nature Reserve is located in the mountain system of the Khamar-Daban ridge on the shores of Lake Baikal on the southern side. The state reserve was formed in 1969, and after a while received the status of a biosphere reserve and was included in the international network of protected areas.
The total area of the Baikal Nature Reserve is about 410195 acres of land. Its main activity is aimed at studying the phenomena and processes occurring in nature without the participation of the human factor, recreating and preserving natural complexes on the southern coast of Lake Baikal, supplying hunting and fishing grounds adjacent to the reserve with wild animals and birds.
In most of the reserve there are mountain systems with an extremely ramified network of rivers and a large number of lakes, the rest of the insignificant part of the territory is occupied by the Baikal terraces with many sphagnum bogs.
There are reminders of the oldest glaciation in the form of a smoothed relief, many trough valleys, cars, circuses. The Khamar-Daban ridge, stretching from east to west, imparts asymmetry to the territory of the Baikal Nature Reserve.
Some central peaks of the ridge are located at an altitude of 2 - 2.3 km above sea level. The climatic conditions and vegetation of the Baikal reserve were formed under the direct influence of the nearby Khamar-Daban ridge and Baikal.
In summer in the mountains the average temperature is 18-19 ° C, and in winter - 26-27 ° C, the average annual temperature is 6 ° below zero. On the territory immediately adjacent to Lake Baikal, the average annual temperature is 0.7 ° C, in winter in January it is about -17 ° C, and in summer + 14 ° C.
With an increase in altitude, the zonal boundaries of vegetation change are clearly visible: on the coast of Lake Baikal there are birch groves, flooded with sunlight, which in the mountain-forest belt are replaced by dark coniferous taiga, mainly from fir and cedar trees.
Up the slope of the ridge, to replace the dense taiga, park forests and dwarf cedar trees come, and near swampy and too humid places their thinned thickets open up peaty glades, covered with hellebore, cinquefoil, sedge. They are replaced by alpine meadows with bright orange splashes - these are meadows overgrown with a bathing suit.
The tops of the ridge are the tundra, the nondescript flora of which is represented by lichens, mosses and dwarf birches.
This point offers stunning views of the entire Baikal reserve: flowering meadows, dense taiga, waterfalls, fast rivers, countless lakes.
Location of the Baikal Biosphere Reserve
The Baikal Nature Reserve covers the central watershed part of the Khamar-Daban ridge with the highest point of Mount Sokhor (2316 m). The northern macroslope is located along the southern coast of Lake Baikal on the territory of the Kabansky District. On the southern slope, the border of the reserve runs along the right bank of the Temnik River within the Dzhida and Selenginsky districts.
The Baikal Biosphere Reserve, namely one of its parts, spreads its vastness on the southeastern coast of the gray-haired Baikal. The village of Tankhoi, where the directorate of the protected area is located, is located 235 km. from the city of Ulan-Ude, and from the city of Irkutsk - 220 km.
Reserved places are located, covering as many as three districts of Buryatia!
The territory of the reserve covers the central watershed part of the Khamar-Daban ridge with the highest point of Mount Sokhor (2316 m). The northern macroslope is located along the southern coast of Lake Baikal within the Kaban region. On the southern slope, the border of the reserve runs along the right bank of the Temnik River on the territory of the Dzhida and Selenginsky districts.
The history of the Baikal State Reserve dates back to September 26, 1969. The resolution of the Council of Ministers of the USSR confirmed the decision of the government of the Buryat Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic of 1968 to organize a protected area to preserve the natural diversity of Baikal. The idea itself came from local ecologists, concerned about the construction of the Baikal Pulp and Paper Mill and the damage that its activities would bring to nature.
In 1985, the lands of the Kabansky Nature Reserve, located in the delta of the Selenga River, were transferred under the protection of the reserve. This place has been chosen for habitation by dozens of species of waterfowl, many of which are endemic and are found only in the Baikal Nature Reserve. And in 2011, the Altachey reserve was included in the reserve complex.
in the Baikal Nature Reserve