Sokolova M

Sokolova M

Ancient Travel Chapter

Revitalization of tourism in the era of antiquity

Sea voyages in Ancient Greece have been made since time immemorial, which is reflected in myths. The most famous is the myth of the Argonauts. According to Diogenes, the first known presentation of this campaign was a poem by the Cretan priest and philosopher Epimenides, who lived in the 7th century. BC e. His work has not survived, but two centuries later the poet Pindar again returned to this plot, although his poem was too short.

In the era of Hellenism, in imitation of Homer, the Alexandrian scientist, caretaker of the famous Museion - Apollonius, the work "Argonautica" was written. Subsequently, many authors of antiquity 1 turned to this plot: Terence Varro, Valery Flaccus, Ovid and Seneca.

The sailing under the guidance of Jason was made by 50 Greek heroes on the ship "Argo", which in Greek means "fast", "nimble". The campaign was completed a generation (20 - 25 years) before the Trojan War, that is, in the XIII century. BC e. Jason was sent for the golden fleece by his uncle, who usurped power from his father.

At first, Jason's path lay to the island of Lemnos in the Aegean Sea, where only women lived. The ruler of the island, the beautiful Gypsipila (her counterpart in the Odyssey is Kirka) charmed the Argonauts so much that they forgot about the purpose of their journey. Freed from her spell, the Argonauts reached the city of Cyzicus on the coast of the Sea of ​​Marmara, where they fought with six-armed giants, like the Cyclopes in the Odyssey, and exterminated them.

With great difficulty, thanks to cunning, they managed to slip through the narrowest point of the Bosphorus - Simgategada, where the distance between the shores is only 2 km, and in bad weather it is a continuous whirlpool. It was believed that the exit to the Black Sea was blocked by "wandering" - converging - rocks. The Argonauts let a pigeon pass through the rocks, and when they parted, the Argo rushed forward. Not having time to destroy the ship, the rocks stopped forever. This episode can be seen as a symbol of the discovery by the Greeks of the Black Sea or Pontus.

On the Anatolian coast of Pontus, they find their way to the country of the Amazons, and later to Colchis. First, they land on the island of the god of war Ares - Aretiade, where the Stymphalian birds with copper feathers, beaks and claws, expelled by Hercules from Arcadia, lived. The Argonauts were forced to don military equipment. It is obvious that contacts with the Colchians were of a military nature. Having overcome all the obstacles, the Argonauts finally arrived in the capital of Colchis - Eyu (in this place is now the city of Poti).

Fleece falls into the hands of Jason. But what does it symbolize? What did the Argonauts go for?

Obviously, not for gold, since there is negligible amount of it in the Caucasus. Indeed, a number of peoples: the Romanians in the Balkans, the Uzbeks in Central Asia and the Kolkhs in the Caucasus — there was in ancient times a method of collecting gold in gold-bearing rivers, where the skin of a ram was dropped to catch grains of gold. Strabo believed that the Golden Fleece is a lamb skin dipped into a gold-bearing river [14].

But you can approach the understanding of the phrase "golden fleece" literally, meaning some varieties of colored karakul - sura. There are bronze, amber, golden, platinum, etc. suras. These names almost accurately reflect the cost of a particular variety. Platinum is worth its weight in platinum, and gold is worth its weight in gold. In Greece, perhaps, they wanted to have Surnos as one of the most important export items in the future.

There is also a theory that the Golden Fleece was meant as a sign of royal power.

They had to return home along the path they had already explored. But that did not happen. On the way back, the Argonauts had to cross the Pontus, enter the Istres (Danube) river, then they go to the Adriatic Sea, from there to the Ionian, visit the island of Crete. But the storm throws them further to the northern shores of Africa. And after many adventures there, they finally return home. In all likelihood, the return journey of the Argonauts represents a later insertion and reflects, in a poetic, easily accessible form, geographical knowledge and the most important trade routes of that era.

Greece is an amazing country full of romance and color, which has everything - from ancient architectural monuments to beautiful nature and modern entertainment.

Ancient Greek Architecture

The architecture of Greece is very diverse and original - many tourists go to this extraordinary country precisely to get acquainted with the numerous architectural monuments of antiquity.

If you are also a fan of antiquity, you should definitely visit the famous Acropolis in Athens. It is believed that on the hill where the Acropolis still stands today, the first buildings arose in the 7th-5th centuries. BC e., and in the III century. BC e. people used it as a refuge from enemy attacks. Now we can only imagine the former greatness of the Acropolis, since both the structure itself and its numerous unsurpassed sculptures have suffered greatly during this time - both from human hands, and from natural elements, and simply from “old age”. Despite this, part of the buildings, thanks to the efforts of the Greek government, was restored and survived to this day as the ancient Greeks saw it.

Another architectural landmark that is especially popular with tourists is the Palace of Knossos of King Minos. Located on about. Crete, the palace is shrouded in many legends. They say that King Minos built it to hide the betrayal of his wife, who gave birth to the Minotaur. That is why the palace has the shape of a labyrinth, through which young boys and girls, sent as sacrifices for the Minotaur, wandered, finding no way out and no salvation.

Another famous Minoan palace is Phaestos. It is believed that it was built for the brother of Minos - Radamantis, and its age, according to some sources, is more than 4 thousand years! It is also located on about. Crete and is shrouded in many unusual events. It was destroyed several times - for reasons completely incomprehensible to historians, and it was here that the mysterious Phaistos disc was found. The palace is not as huge as the last one, but it is very beautiful.

Other important architectural treasures of Greece:

  • Lindos is a small town on the island. Rhodes, full of well-restored ancient sites. Tourists are attracted by the Panagia Church, medieval mansions, the ancient acropolis and the knight's castle.
  • The Rhodes Fortress is a 15th century building, famous for many glorious battles.
  • The island-fortress of Spinalonga is the remains of the ancient city of Olus, which sank under the water during a strong earthquake.
  • The Palace of Medieval Masters in Rhodes is a real fairytale castle, built back in 1408.
  • Fortecia Rethymion - like the whole of ancient Rethymion, is popular among tourists due to its grandeur and special ancient atmosphere.
  • The ruins of the ancient city of Kamiros are all that remains of this powerful center of ancient culture after the earthquake that happened more than 2 thousand years ago.
  • The White Tower in Thessaloniki, which is a real symbol not only of the city, but also of Greece. Once it was even printed in local currency.
  • The majestic castle of Monolithos, which seems to grow out of the rock.
  • Sianna is a calm mountain village that has managed to preserve the indescribable atmosphere of antiquity.
  • The ancient theater of Knossos on the island. Crete, which is associated with many secrets and legends.
  • Unusual old mills on the island. Santorini.

White Tower

Places of worship in Greece

We have described some of the famous buildings of Greece of religious significance in the last section - these are ancient ancient temples. They also include Asklepion - a temple built after the death of Hippocrates, which also owned a hospital and a school.

Especially from the religious buildings, we want to highlight two interesting objects.

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