Natural zones of Eastern Siberia

Eastern Siberia: cities, political and economic situation

Starting from the 15th century, the Russians began to move east from the Ural Mountains: first they explored and settled in Western Siberia, and then in Eastern Siberia. The geographical division of Siberia into Western and Eastern Siberia is rather arbitrary and has a historical character.


Western Siberia can be outlined by the Ural Mountains from the west, and the Yenisei River valley from the east; its length from west to east is about 1500 km. In the south, Western Siberia affects the Kazakh steppe, and in the north it reaches the Kara Sea (Arctic Ocean); its length from south to north is 2500 km.

Western Siberia includes such modern regions of Russia as the Republic of Altai, Altai Krai, Kemerovo Oblast, Novosibirsk Oblast, Omsk Oblast, Tomsk Oblast, Tyumen Oblast (including the Khanty-Mansiysk Autonomous Okrug and the Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous district).

Some facts about Western Siberia

1. The size of Western Siberia is 2.45 million square meters. Km. This means that Western Siberia is only slightly smaller than Kazakhstan (No. 9 among the largest countries).

2. Western Siberia has the largest oil and gas regions in Russia.

3. The most fertile lands in Siberia are located in Western Siberia - in the south of the region in the steppe zone.

4. The climate in Western Siberia is continental: in winter the temperature from north to south ranges from -15 to -30 degrees Celsius, and in summer - from +20 in the south and + 5 in the north.

5. The Ob and Irtysh rivers form a water system that is included in the list of the 10 largest rivers in the world.

6. Taiga occupies about 62% of the territory of Western Siberia. Taiga forests are part of the so-called “lungs of the planet”.

7. The region has a large number of swamps, which is explained by excessive irrigation and poor drainage - permafrost and flat terrain.

General characteristics of the natural zones of Eastern Siberia

Siberia is a region unique in its territory and landscape diversity. A huge part of it lies in the Asian part of the largest continent on the planet Earth - Eurasia. The western part of Siberia begins immediately behind the Urals. It consists of lowlands and plains. Behind it, to the east of the Yenisei River, is directly the zone of Eastern Siberia. Unlike the flat western part, the eastern part consists mainly of mountains and plateaus. The rivers carrying their waters in this territory are abounding and fast. Their channels run through numerous gorges.

The total area of ​​Eastern Siberia is approximately 7 mln. m, and the length from north to south is about 3 thousand m.

In the south, this region borders on Mongolia and China, and in the north it is washed by the seas belonging to the basin of the Arctic Ocean - Kara, Laptev and East Siberian.

Due to its large area, Eastern Siberia is located in several climatic zones. On its territory arctic, subarctic and continental types of climate coexist. Therefore, both steppes and tundra are found in Eastern Siberia. Taiga occupies a large area, but you can also find deciduous forest.

A variety of unique nature has made it possible to open many national, natural parks and reserves on this area.

Eastern Siberia is also rich in minerals such as natural gas, oil, deposits of precious stones and metals are being developed. Numerous deposits of iron ores, graphite, mica, various raw materials used in the chemical industry have turned Eastern Siberia into a powerful raw material region of Russia.

The region of Eastern Siberia also includes the islands located in the Arctic Ocean. This is the Lyakhovsky Islands group, Severnaya Zemlya, the New Siberian Islands group.

It should also be said that more than half of all timber reserves in Russia are in the East Siberian region.

Features of the natural zones of Eastern Siberia

Eastern Siberia is conventionally divided into three parts:

  • Central Siberia;
  • North-Eastern Siberia;
  • mountains of Southern Siberia.

Central Siberia begins immediately behind the West Siberian Lowland and includes the Taimyr Peninsula and the East Siberian taiga. Further to the east is Northeast Siberia, on the territory of which Yakutia is located. In the southern part of Eastern Siberia there are mountains, the Minusinsk Basin and Lake Baikal.

Vast East Siberian territories are located between the Yenisei and Lena rivers, from the shores of the Arctic Ocean to the South Siberian mountains. The region is extremely rich in natural resources. Large reserves of copper, gold, diamonds, oil and gas, nickel, iron ores and much more are concentrated in the depths of these places.

Almost 70% of lignite and hard coal deposits are concentrated here. About half of the country's forests are concentrated in the vast expanses. This region with a harsh climate is of very important industrial, economic and agricultural importance for Russia.

Geographical location

Eastern Siberia is located in the Northern Hemisphere on the Asian territory of Russia and is part of the vast northeastern region of Eurasia. Most of the space is located on the Central Siberian Plateau, where taiga larch and pine forests prevail. In the north, they turn into tundra, in the east and south they are replaced by the Sayan and Transbaikal mountains. The dominant type of natural zone is taiga, which occupies an area of ​​5 million km 2. There are also: swamps, dry steppes, arctic deserts.

The East Siberian region includes:

  • Krasnoyarsk Territory;
  • Irkutsk Region;
  • Trans-Baikal Territory,
  • Republic of Buryatia;
  • Tuva ;
  • Yakutia ;
  • Chita region.

These territories are characterized by a large range of winter and summer temperatures.

Common types of climate:

  • extracontinental ;
  • moderately continental ;
  • sharply continental.

Borders and area

The area of ​​Eastern Siberia is 7.2 million km 2, half of which is occupied by the Central Siberian Plateau. The eastern border of the region runs along the watershed ridges along the Pacific coast, while the western border runs along the banks of the Yenisei River. The region also borders China and Mongolia, and in Russia, the Far East and the West Siberian Economic District are neighbors.


The total number of citizens living in Eastern Siberia is 9.3 million. The territory is considered sparsely populated, since the population density here is 2 people per 1 km 2, and in Taimyr and Evenkia - less than one.

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