Along with entertainment, educational, health tourism, a significant number of people are attracted by educational tourism. Its purpose is to familiarize with the material and spiritual values of various countries and peoples. Unlike entertainment tourism, cognitive tourism allows tour participants to get to know more deeply both the whole culture of individual peoples, and with its individual manifestations. Cognitive tourism is an expression of a person's desire to expand his horizons, to get an idea of how other countries and peoples live, what are their achievements in science, art, technology and everyday life. The desire for knowledge is both content and a powerful stimulus for human activity. Receiving new impressions about well-known natural and cultural phenomena, a person satisfies one of his most powerful needs - the need for knowledge. In cognitive tourism, a person actually encounters what he only read about or what he saw on television. This encounter with reality turns out to be much more memorable and influencing his imagination than the books he has read and the films he has seen. New impressions allow a person to rethink his life path, see new horizons, and receive new stimuli for creative self-expression. There are architectural monuments of world importance in Russia. These are the architectural complexes of St. Petersburg and its environs, and the architectural ensembles of Moscow and its estates, as well as the architecture of the cities of the so-called Golden Ring. Acquaintance with these monuments allows you to see the creative potential of Russians and the greatness of the historical past of our country.
Cognitive tourism covers all aspects of travel, through which a person learns about the life, culture, customs of another people. Tourism is thus an important vehicle for creating cultural ties and international cooperation. The development of cultural factors within the region is a means of expanding resources to attract tourist flows. In many countries, tourism can be included in the so-called cultural relations policy.
The level of cultural development can also be used to create a favorable image of a particular region in the tourism market. Cultural elements and factors can be channels for the distribution of information about the tourism opportunities of the area. The success of tourism development depends not only on the material and technical base that meets generally accepted standards and requirements, but also on the uniqueness of the national cultural heritage.
The role of educational tourism in the modern world is enormous. Tourism affects all spheres of society, including culture, economy, social life. The intensity of tourism development, the scale of tourism largely depend on the recognition by the world community of the value of the country's cultural and natural potential, its heritage. At present, it is culture and heritage that determine the attitude of the world community to the country, its attractiveness from the standpoint of not only social relations and tourism, but also business. True respect in modern conditions can be achieved not only, and not so much through the strengthening of military power, growth of national territory and population, but, first of all, through the contribution that the country makes to world culture, science and economy (as part of a common culture) , in the development of civilized relations between peoples, countries, people. In this regard, for the recognition of the significance of the country as a great power, the role of heritage, cultural values created by the people over a long period of its existence becomes decisive.
This also applies to Russia. After all, the fact that Russia remains today among the great powers of the world is largely due to the authority of its remarkable writers, musicians, artists, architects and scientists. Russia is great for its artistic and scientific schools. The whole world knows contemporary Russian pianists, violinists and cellists, singers, ballet masters, physicists and mathematicians.
Therefore, today, when they talk about the attractiveness of Russia as a tourist space, they mean not only the outstanding creations of Russian architects, the beauty of ancient Russian cities, the depth of folk culture embodied in folklore, in the creations of folk masters, but also wonderful works of writers and poets, artists, musicians, the originality of the national culture that has developed in Russia.
Such large cities as Moscow and St. Petersburg, small Russian historical cities and settlements, which are carriers of a special atmosphere, are inextricably linked with the understanding of the richness and diversity of the culture of Russia, where the most valuable examples of urban planning art, architectural monuments, places associated with outstanding historical events, the life of wonderful people, natural attractions.
The presence of unique historical, cultural and natural resources in Russia suggests that our country and its regions have the prerequisites for the development of educational tourism, which really gives the economy socio-political and economic dividends and benefits. Meanwhile, the theory and methodology of the development of cognitive tourism is not sufficiently developed, which does not allow in practice to carry out its purposeful management in certain territories. Consequently, Russian organizations specializing in serving tourists traveling for educational purposes are faced with the task of finding such methods of building an effective management system that would strengthen their market positions and thereby contribute to the further development of tourism and the country as a whole.
The Federal Agency for Tourism has approved a strategy for the development of tourism in Russia for the period up to 2015. The 86-page document mainly provides for the development of educational tourism, as the most promising, as well as a significant expansion of the powers of Rostourism. If the second initiative can be implemented already this year, then the allocated eight years may not be enough for the development of educational tourism in Russia.
Cultural and educational tourism differs significantly from other types of tourism, it does not have a pronounced seasonal demand. This type is relevant at any time of the year, as tourists come on excursions to visit museums, see historical monuments and sights of the country
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