Annotation. innovation in tourism is the development, creation of new tourist routes, projects, etc. using the achievements of science, technology, IT-technologies, as well as advanced experience in the fields of management and marketing, the implementation of which will increase the employment level of the population, ensure the growth of its income, accelerate socio-economic development and improve the tourist image of the country and regions.
Key words: innovation, innovation system, innovation strategy, tourism market, tourism.
The most important feature of the current stage of economic development is the increased role of innovation as the basis for the economic growth of states, as well as the desire of developed countries to compete through high technologies and non-standard intangible assets.
The widespread introduction of innovative products and technologies into the economic circulation has become a key factor in economic growth and improving the quality of life of the population.
J. Schumpeter was the first to use the term “innovation” in its modern sense. He emphasized that innovation is a significant change in the function of what is produced, consisting in a new combination and commercialization of all new combinations based on the use of new materials and components, the introduction of new processes, the opening of new markets, the introduction of new organizational forms .
In Russian legislation, innovation is understood as “the end result of innovation, which has been implemented in the form of a new or improved product, a new or improved technological process used in practice on the market” .
In the Principles of the Policy of the Russian Federation in the Development of Science and Technology for the Period up to 2010 and Beyond, approved by the President of the Russian Federation, the formation of a national innovation system (NIS) is defined as the most important task: combining the efforts of state governing bodies of all levels, organizations and the scientific and technical sphere and the entrepreneurial sector of the economy in the interests of the accelerated use of the achievements of science and technology in order to implement the country's strategic national priorities ”.
The main directions of the formation of the national innovation system:
- creating a favorable economic and legal environment (creating a favorable investment climate); - building an innovative infrastructure; - improving the organizational and economic mechanism of state assistance for the commercialization of the results of research and experimental development.
The innovation strategy is a reflection of the state innovation policy. This is an integral part of the state's socio-economic development strategy. It defines long-term goals, directions, tools and the scope of regulation of innovation. In addition, the innovation strategy covers and regulates the development of the state, moreover, the strategies for the innovative development of regions and sectors of the national economy should be harmoniously combined with the general development strategy of the country.
In recent decades, Russia, like many other countries, has been taking active steps to transition to an innovative way of economic development. Most of Russian innovations arise in those strategic sectors that are purposefully funded by the state (for example, in the field of weapons and space exploration). However, despite the existence of sufficiently developed innovative industries, the strategy of Russia's innovative development is built on the principle of an innovative strategy for all sectors of the economy.
Innovation planning and innovation projects
Planning is one of the main elements of the innovation management system. Planning is to develop the main directions of innovation in accordance with the planned development strategy, resource opportunities and existing market demand. This is a system of calculations, determination of the size of investments and preparation of decisions necessary to achieve the intended goals. Planning is based on systematic market research, collection and analysis of numerous data covering economic, political, demographic and other aspects.
Innovation planning is part of a complex structure of integrated planning, consisting of plans of different levels, goals and content. It is carried out by goals (strategic or operational), subject (production, sales, finance, personnel), levels (organization, department, program, individual performer), content (technical and economic, product, calendar) and periods (short-term, medium-term, long-term).
Innovation planning has the following functions:
- setting tasks based on information support about the goals, resources, timing and conditions of the innovation, including for each participant; - preparation of rational and economically sound management decisions based on calculations and sound forecasts, taking into account favorable and unfavorable trends and conditions; - coordination of the activities of all participants in the process by various forms of management and incentives; - determination of the base and time period for subject control of the state of the system and assessment of the progress of the innovation process
Innovative projects contain specific formulation of tasks and implementation of innovations in certain areas, products and services.
An innovative project is the procedure for defining goals and objectives for the creation or implementation of a separate innovative product. The project includes forms of innovation management, the process of its implementation and a set of documents that justifies and characterizes these activities.
Innovation management is a system of interrelated actions determined by terms, resources, performers and aimed at achieving specific goals.
The innovation process includes organizational, production, technological, commercial and other activities leading to the introduction and dissemination of innovations.
A set of documents contains various kinds of technical, financial and accounting documentation required for the implementation of innovations.
Thus, an innovative project can be defined as a set of interrelated programs that ensure the effective achievement of a specific innovation goal, agreed in terms of resources, deadlines, performers and documented.
To make a decision on the feasibility of implementing innovative projects and the amount of their financing, projects must go through the examination procedure. Analysis of innovative projects has its own characteristics. You cannot limit yourself to standard methods, you need to combine qualitative and quantitative methods with a comparative analysis of factor models. Therefore, both standard approaches of correlation, financial and investment analysis, as well as situational, probabilistic modeling methods, the results of forecasting research developments, and assessing the viability of the project are used. This is due to legal, institutional, environmental and social problems, fundamental novelty of the product, market volatility, special training and selection of personnel, significant technical, technological and commercial risks. One of the variants of the generalized scheme for analyzing an innovative project according to L.N. Ogoleva is shown in Fig. four. .
Robots butlers, self-cleaning windows, convertible rooms, pools with underwater speakers, 3D projections for conference rooms, underwater rooms, bubble rooms, neuroprogramming of dreams - what kind of assumptions you will not hear about future services when talking comes to the development of hotels. We tried to figure out how hotels actually use new technologies and adapt to the changing requirements of guests. Among science fiction, fiction and individual experiments, we managed to find six real trends. We analyze them in this article and support the conclusions with real examples.
According to surveys, 72% of hospitality executives invested in technological innovation between 2011 and 2016. Let's see what exactly can be found in modern hotels.
Traditional keys are hardly found in hotels for a long time, they were replaced by plastic cards. Now hotels have gone even further and are offering guests to open rooms using phone apps. The Marriott Group introduced the system to Starwood hotels in 2014 and expanded to Le Méridien, Westin, Sheraton and Four Points in 2016. You can access your room using the app in 160 hotels of the group in 30 countries. Among them:
All these hotels can be booked on B2B. strovok.
Hilton also offers a similar system that is popular with guests. In 2017, 4 million electronic keys were registered in the application.
Perhaps soon it will be possible to do without keys at all, and the rooms will recognize guests by sight. This technology is being tested in China. Considering that smartphones have already learned to recognize the faces of the owners, the development of such technology seems logical for hotels. But so far, this can only be found at the FlyZoo Hotel in Hangzhou, which is owned by tech giant Alibaba.
In the coming years, hotel staff may not worry about their jobs. Robots appear in hotels, but it is impossible to rely on them completely. So far, they serve more as a feature to attract guests and a way for the company to declare its attention to technology. Modern robots are dependent, their work is always controlled by a person, and they are not trusted with important tasks.
It's time to discard the stereotypical notions that active winter recreation is available only to a select few - dashing skiers and snowboarders.
It is quite easy for a child to be seriously injured in winter. The high level of play activity and the variety of winter activities captivate the little ones. The task of parents is to prevent children's injuries and protect their child from this, and if they get injured, mom and dad should be able to provide first aid to the baby.