Evolution of the market for outbound tourism services from Primorsky Krai to China

Main ingredients of Chinese cuisine

China is the world's largest rice producer. Ancient China was one of the world's first rice-growing centers. For thousands of years, the Chinese have worked hard in their fields to achieve good harvests. Agriculture has always been the backbone of China's economy, with rice taking center stage. Overall, rice has played a very important role in Chinese history. In the past, people believed that the most precious things in life were five grains, not pearls or jade, but rice.

Rice is the staple food in China. The Chinese eat rice in much the same way as people in many other countries eat bread. Rice is cooked by boiling or steaming until it absorbs as much water as possible.

The national cuisine of China is rich in rice dishes. The most popular, and probably not only in China, can be called fried rice. Due to the variety of types of rice, the way of cooking and the amount of added ingredients (such as beans, pieces of meat, vegetables, eggs, etc.), an endless variety of fried rice dishes have been invented.

Rice is also made into porridge in China. During the preparation of the porridge, much more water is added so that the rice can cook and become very soft, while still leaving a certain amount of water. This porridge is often served and eaten with a variety of pickled vegetables, bamboo shoots, pickled duck eggs, pickled bean curd, and many other snacks. In addition to the usual dish for every day, rice porridge is often used as a base in the preparation of medicinal dishes. Then various ingredients that have medicinal properties are added to such porridge.


Noodles are one of the main dishes of Chinese cuisine. Noodles are very popular and have a very long history. For the first time, mention of noodles can be found in documents dating back to the era of the Han Dynasty (206 BC - 220). Later, during the Song Dynasty (960 - 1279), noodles became a very popular dish. There are many ways to prepare noodles. And they are all relatively simple. Different people can add a variety of ingredients to the noodles according to their preferences, and then many new types of noodles appear.

Chinese noodles can be tasted in all Chinese cities. It differs in many ways. One such parameter is the width of the noodles. Noodles can be as thin as a needle and as thick as chopsticks. However, when it comes to length, basically everyone tries to make the noodles long without cutting them into shorter pieces. This is because, according to the Chinese, long noodles symbolize many years. Therefore, during birthday celebrations, people often prepare "longevity noodles" in the hope of a long life.

Chinese noodles

Basic noodles are made from rice flour or starch and water. Small amounts of egg color, alkali or other ingredients can be added to wheat flour noodles to make the noodles yellow and change texture, tenderness, and flavor. Regardless of the type of noodle, it cooks very quickly. Al dente usually takes less than 5 minutes to cook, while thinner noodles will usually take less than one minute.

Noodles are served and consumed hot or cold, boiled, stewed, fried, deep-fried or added to soup. But no matter which cooking method you choose, the first thing you need to do is stir the noodles with the chopsticks so that all the ingredients are evenly mixed. Noodles are an excellent dish for a balanced diet due to their low calorie content and high protein and carbohydrate content.

Chinese food and recipe: the most popular Chinese dishes

China has a huge amount of tourism resources. Delicious food is a must for a good tour. With a long history, unique characteristics, multiple styles and traditions, and exceptional cooking methods, Chinese cuisine is an important part of the great Chinese culture.

Chinese food is famous for its color, aroma, taste and very attractive appearance. Below we highlight the eight most popular dishes among Chinese and foreign tourists. For the convenience of our customers, we also provide a list of these dishes, written in Chinese characters, with a Russian pronunciation.

These eight dishes are Sweet and Sour Pork (or Chicken), Gongbao Chicken, Ma Po's Tofu, Wontons, Dumplings, Chinese Rolls, Fried Noodles, and Peking Duck. All of these dishes can be ordered at most large restaurants in China.

Since China is so beautiful and Chinese food is so delicious, it makes sense to book a special Chinese food tour. This is a great way to sample a wide variety of different delicacies, enjoy some of the most scenic natural attractions and explore new cities in China.

Peking Duck (北京 烤鸭)

Peking duck is one of the most popular dishes in China, one of the symbols of Chinese cuisine, famous all over the world.

A particularly valuable part of Peking duck is, according to many, its thin and crunchy skin. Duck thinly sliced ​​is usually served with tortillas, sweet bean sauce, or soy with minced garlic.

In Beijing, tourists can also enjoy other delicacies such as Mongolian-style hotpot, Bifantan shrimp and finely chopped chips. More information on Food in Beijing.

Sweet and sour pork (糖醋 里脊)

Pork in sweet and sour sauce has a bright orange-red color and a great taste - sweet and sour at the same time. Initially, it was pork in sweet and sour sauce. Over time, in order to satisfy the needs of customers, they began to offer chicken, beef, and pork ribs in sweet and sour sauce.

Annotation. The article discusses the methodology for studying the cycle of tourist trips on the example of tourist trips to China. According to the authors, this methodology is not only an example for studying the structure of trips in various directions - international and domestic, but also provides useful information for the development of new tourist offers on the territory of the region.

Keywords: tourism, region, tourism product, data analysis, open question, consumer typology.

One of the functions of tourism both in the country and in the region is its influence on improving the quality of life of the population and the reproduction of its physical and spiritual forces. The level of tourism development provides the opportunity to implement this function. In the Primorsky Territory, the level of competition among tourist enterprises is felt especially acutely, since there is a high density of tourist companies on the territory of the Primorsky Territory.

The most complete list of tourist firms in the territory of the region includes 271 companies [1]. Tourist firms are mainly located in the regional center, in Vladivostok - 86% of all enterprises. The rapid growth in the number of tourist firms in the Primorsky Territory is due to mass tourism to border China (mainly shopping tours). This type of tourism accounts for up to 50% of all trips of Russian tourists to China. Due to the change in customs legislation, the tourist flow from Russia to China has been steadily declining over the past two years.

Full cycle tour to China

Against the backdrop of the global crisis, the problems of tourism enterprises have become even more aggravated. They are forced to actively improve and expand the range of travel offers, based on research on changes in the needs of travelers. However, most travel companies do not have sufficient resources to conduct large-scale marketing research or are very limited in their capabilities.

One of the areas of research at the Department of Marketing and Commerce of VSUES is the study of the full cycle of tourist travel, which includes all components of tourist services: transport, accommodation, meals, entertainment and others. The purpose of this line of research is to identify the structure and patterns of consumer models that provide a basis for creating more targeted tourism products. Let us consider some of the results of the study of the cycle of tourist trips to China, as the most massive type of tourism in the Primorsky Territory. The results were obtained on the basis of processing the data of a questionnaire survey, in which about two thousand respondents took part, who traveled from the Primorsky Territory to China.

Purchase of goods at lower prices than in Russia (shopping) prevails among the purposes of travel. However, the structure of tourist consumption has been dynamically changing in recent years. If earlier shopping tours prevailed with the aim of purchasing goods for resale, now it is buying goods for yourself and your family. Tourists are now trying not so much to buy a lot of cheap goods, but rather better ones. The number of tourists leaving for rest and treatment has noticeably increased (26% of tourists).

However, most of the trips of tourists from Primorsky Krai are still carried out for short periods for the weekend. Trips of 2-3 days make up almost 70% of all trips. Among the most visited cities in China, the city of Sui fen he is still in the lead - a city located on the border of Russia and China (45% of respondents). Over the past decade, this city has turned from a small village into a large modern city - and this is thanks to tourists from Russia.

However, the city's attendance index Suifenhe is greatly exaggerated, as there are many rail and road routes to other cities in China through this city, and therefore respondents may indicate it as an intermediate point in their answers. In recent years, the geography of visited cities in China has expanded significantly.

Salary level and package price

Border cities such as Hunchun (42% of tourists) and Mishan (19% of tourists) remain among the popular cities most visited by tourists. But more and more tourists go to resorts in the south of China (Sanya - 8% of tourists, Baidakhe - 4% of tourists, Qingdao - 3%, etc.). There are even regular flights to Sanya today.

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