As part of the NSA's activities, it was decided to train and recruit, on a commercial basis, the first Russian detachment of cosmonauts-tourists under two programs: orbital and suborbital flights. Preparations are planned to begin in March - April 2015. The planned composition of the first corps of cosmonauts-tourists is 50 people.
Orbital flights Under this program, it is planned to train astronauts-tourists under an accelerated program (6 months). Training program for the Soyuz PA (for this purpose, the issue is being worked out and negotiations are underway to sign an agreement with the URSC Roscosmos).
Suborbital flights Under this program, it is planned to train astronauts-tourists under a program additionally developed at the TsPK im. YU. . agarine. The training program provides for flights on suborbital spacecraft KM-5 - the 5th seater ship (for this purpose, bilateral contacts are underway to sign a contract with the VG company).
The main base and location of the NSA is onino, the command post (office of the organization of the city of Oskva). In addition, in 2015, it is planned to open a higher educational institution in the village of Onino - the International Academy of Aviation and Cosmonautics (on the basis of the former Air Force Academy named after Yu. Agarin), for theoretical training of future astronauts - tourists.
Terms of practical implementation of the manned program by 2020 - 2025
The program of interplanetary flights
Orbital piloting on SOYUZ spacecraft
Orbital piloting on SOYUZ spacecraft
Suborbital manned aircraft
The end of the 20th century can rightfully be called the beginning of the era of “private astronautics”. Space monopolist - the state is gradually opening the "doors to the sky" for private organizations ready to build rockets, and for tourists who want to see our planet from a height for their own money or the money of commercial companies.
In 1990, the first “non-professional”, Japanese journalist Toyohiro Akiyama, went into space aboard the Soyuz spacecraft. At the time of the flight, he was 48 years old. Together with Soviet cosmonauts Viktor Afanasyev and Musa Manarov, he joined the crew of the eighth main expedition to the Mir space station and was supposed to conduct several live broadcasts for Japanese television viewers. For this mission, the TBS corporation paid the Soviet Union, according to various sources, from $ 25 million to $ 37 million.
The journalist's training, which took a little over a year, took place at the Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center. At that time, special training programs for individuals had not yet been developed, and the Japanese might have been trained according to some “lightweight scheme” not intended for professional cosmonauts (for an untrained person, the training scheme for cosmonauts can become an overwhelming burden). After entering orbit, Toyohiro showed lack of preparation; during adaptation to weightlessness, health problems arose associated with disorders of the vestibular apparatus.
Approximately since the beginning of the 2000s, when the number of billionaires wishing to go into space increases, training begins to take place according to a more verified and thorough scheme.
As of today, at least 15 organizations are known to be involved in “selling tickets to space”. The most famous of them are SpaceX, Blue Origin, Virgin Galactic and Space Adventures. If the first three, in fact, are still newcomers in this field, they have yet to send tourists to outer space (SpaceX - to the Moon in 2023, Blue Origin on a suborbital flight in the first half of 2019, Virgin Galactic - in the second half of 2019) , then the latter is a “veteran”.
American Space Adventures has already helped seven billionaires get to the ISS. The company works closely with Roscosmos, and therefore all of its clients are trained at the Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center and under the supervision of the State Corporation.
As we noted above, so far the only company in the world that already sends tourists into space, and has been doing this since 2001, is Space Adventures. For this purpose, Space Adventures uses Soyuz rockets belonging to Roskosmos.
Getting into space is a very expensive pleasure, and not everyone can access it - only those who have millions of dollars and good health (or almost good health). Usually a space tour is a flight to the ISS, and the price for it since 2009 has varied from $ 35-45 million. If a tourist wants to go into outer space, he will need to pay an additional $ 45-55 million.
20 years ago, space tourism was considered a fantasy. However, today the flight of a private person into space has become a reality.
The Americans were going to be the pioneers back in 1986. It was planned to send the first man into orbit along with 6 astronauts on the Challenger shuttle. Her name was Christa McColliff, an ordinary teacher.
Unfortunately, at 77 seconds of flight, the shuttle exploded, all crew members were killed. After such a tragic incident, the United States banned the sending of amateurs to Space.
Currently, space tourism means the delivery of a tourist to the International Space Station (ISS). This service is provided only by Roskosmos.
Moreover, according to the rules of Roskosmos, only a tourist who makes at least 1 orbit around the Earth at an altitude of more than 100 km can become an astronaut. Since the ISS is on average at an altitude of 400 km, an amateur on the ISS automatically becomes an astronaut after 90 minutes (the ISS makes one revolution around the Earth in 90 minutes).
The cost at the beginning of the 2000s was $ 20 million. Since 2008, it has increased to 35. Additionally, there was a service for entering the open space for $ 3 million.
Since, during the flight, the astronaut experiences severe overloads, he should not have any health abnormalities. If the medical examination gives "the go-ahead", then the amateur will have daily training in the star city throughout the year.
Moreover, the training is a little easier than that of the astronauts. In addition, the amateur is obliged to study the design of the Soyuz launch vehicle (flights with tourists are carried out only on Soyuz).
Currently there are 7. All of them are naturally billionaires, most of them are US citizens. In April 2001, Dennis Tito became the first tourist cosmonaut to pay for his trip, who flew with two crew members.
Space tourism - paid from private funds for flights into space or low-earth orbit for entertainment or research purposes.
The idea of space tourism was first reflected in a series of works by Barron Hilton and Eric Craft, published in 1967. At first, they tried to push through the idea of commercializing space. It was not successful at the time.
Space tourism began to develop at the end of the 20th century. In 1986 at the International Astronautics Congress in English. International Astronautical Congress (International Astronautical Congress) presented a report on this topic "The likely economic impact of the development of space tourism" eng. Potential Economic Implications of the Development of Space Tourism, which caused a lot of discussion not only in the scientific, but also in the business community.
The first tourist was to be the American teacher Christy McAuliffe, who died in the 1986 Challenger shuttle launch. after this incident, the US government passed a law that prohibited non-professional space flight.
In 1990 and 1991, the first commercial cosmonauts Toshiro of Japan, Akiyama and Helen Sharman from Great Britain, flew into space, who flew on the Soviet Mir space station on the Soyuz TM-11/Soyuz TM-10 and Soyuz spacecraft TM-12/Soyuz TM-11 for privately-funded projects, non-state television companies TBS (TBS) and Juneau, a consortium of British companies.
Currently used only for space tourism purposes is the International Space Station ISS. the flights are carried out using the Russian Soyuz spacecraft on the Russian segment of the ISS.
Roskosmos and Space Adventures are organizing tourist flights. Space Adventures has been cooperating with Roscosmos since 2001. only with the help of this company seven tourists visited space at the end of 2012 (Year 2012), and one of them, Charles Simonyi, twice.
Space tourists are trained in Star City, the city of Shchelkovo near Moscow, as well as in small airplanes that create zero gravity.
Although the cost of an orbital tour is $ 20-23 million, the number of people wishing to see space is steadily growing. Since July 2007, the cost of the space tour has increased from $ 20 million to $ 30-40 million, in addition, a new $ 3 million service/space tourist price has been released.
Space tourism - private funded flights into space or low-earth orbit for recreational or research purposes.
The idea of space tourism was first reflected in a series of papers by Barron Hilton and Kraft Eric, published in 1967. They first tried to push the idea of commercializing space. At the time, it was unsuccessful.
Space tourism began to develop rapidly at the end of the 20th century. In 1986, at the International Astronautics Congress, eng. International Astronautical Congress presented a report on "Probable economic consequences of the development of space tourism" eng. Potential Economic Implications of the Development of Space Tourism, which caused a lot of discussions not only in scientific, but also in business circles.
The first tourist was to be the American teacher Christy McAuliffe, who died in the 1986 Challenger shuttle launch. Following this incident, the US government passed a law that prohibited non-professionals from flying into space.
In 1990 and 1991, the first commercial cosmonauts Toyohiro Akiyama Japan and Helen Sharman Great Britain flew into space, who flew to the Soviet orbital station "Mir" on the spacecraft Soyuz TM-11/Soyuz TM-10 and Soyuz TM-12/Soyuz TM-11 for privately funded non-state projects of the TV company TBS and Juneau, a consortium of British companies.
Currently, the only one used for space tourism is the International Space Station ISS. The flights are carried out by Russian Soyuz spacecraft to the Russian segment of the ISS.
Roskosmos and Space Adventures are organizing tourist flights. Space Adventures has been cooperating with Roscosmos since 2001. In total, with the help of this company, seven tourists have already visited space at the end of 2012, and one of them is Charles Simonyi twice.
Space tourists are trained in Star City, the city of Shchelkovo near Moscow, as well as in small airplanes that create weightlessness.
Although the cost of an orbital tour is $ 20-23 million, the number of people wishing to see space is steadily growing. Since July 2007, the cost of the space tour has increased from $ 20 million to $ 30-40 million; in addition, the price of a new service - a space tourist's spacewalk into outer space - was announced - $ 3 million.
Flights to the ISS Space tourists visiting the ISS
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