Which space stations will replace the ISS

International Space Station (ISS) Miscellaneous (adsbygoogle google ||)

While SpaceX and Virgin Galactic are preparing their rockets, read the story of a man who lived on the ISS.

Recently, Elon Musk has repeatedly mentioned that the Japanese billionaire Yusaku Maezawa will become the first space tourist to fly around the moon for money.

Meanwhile, Jeff Bezos's Blue Origin plans to start selling tickets for 11-minute suborbital space flights in 2019 at prices ranging from $ 200,000 to $ 300,000. And Virgin Galactic, according to its head Richard Branson, has already sold 650 tickets to space (about $ 250,000 apiece), and the maiden flight is about to take place.

But in reality, space tourism is not a new experience. Six ordinary (but rather rich) people have already been in orbit. And the last in 2008 was game tycoon Richard Garriott (now 57). He spent 12 days in space - and paid $ 30 million for it.

Garriott is one of the founders of the private space company Space Adventures. To date, it is the only organization that has actually sent tourists into space. Moreover, Garriott founded it specifically in order to one day go to the moon himself.

Space Adventures is a kind of space travel agency. She does not have her own rockets - the company sends people into space, buying out empty seats in Russian ships. While SpaceX, Blue Origin and Virgin Galactic plan to send tourists on their own reusable rockets. And it turns out that Garriott was ahead of everyone.

View Effect

Garriott was the sixth paid space tourist in human history. (Before him, his company's clients flew into orbit, the first of which was a Japanese journalist.) The businessman went to the International Space Station on the Russian Soyuz spacecraft, where there was an empty seat. (Space Adventure tried to negotiate with NASA, but the US Aerospace Agency refused to transport individuals.)

According to Garriott, space travel is an emotional peak, after which life will never be the same. He felt the "viewing effect": the so-called changes in the awareness of the vulnerability of the Earth, which occur during the examination of the planet from orbit or from the surface of the Moon with his own eyes. Many astronauts talk about this feeling.

When you look at Earth from space, you see the weather changing; geography becomes clear.

On the $ 30 Million Flight and Life on the ISS: The Story of a Space Tourist

The International Space Station (ISS) is the most expensive object that man has created. The total cost of development and operation already exceeds $ 157 billion. The operation of the station will be supported until 2024 with the possibility of extension until 2030. Probably, in the next 10 years, the history of one of the largest international projects will come to an end, but this event will be just another step on the way of space exploration.

The station analogs are already in operation, and some of the countries are planning to implement their own projects. Let's find out what developments will soon replace the ISS.

China - Tiangong Project

China is one of the leaders in modern astronautics, which continues to develop technology and is not afraid to experiment. Within the framework of project 921-2, the Chinese National Space Administration planned to create 3 small orbital stations.

Tiangong-

In 2011, the Tiangong-1 orbital station was launched, the purpose of which was to test the docking with the Shenzhou spacecraft, as well as to conduct a number of experiments. In terms of its functions, the station was similar to the Soviet "Almaz" and "Salyut".

In 2011, the docking was successfully completed, and already in 2012 and 2013, Chinese cosmonauts visited the station. The active period of service "Tiangong-1" was more than 4 years, after which the connection with the station was terminated.

Tiangong-

In 2016, China launched the Tiangong-2 station, the main task of which is to test and test life support systems. The station was inhabited for 30 days. Two cosmonauts conducted experiments using 14 types of equipment. In 2017, the station also worked out the procedure for docking and refueling of the Tianzhou-1 spacecraft. At the moment, the station remains active, but does not contain astronauts on board.

Tiangong-

Thanks to the successful completion of the necessary tests and experiments at the Tiangong-2 station, China decided to save money and not launch the third station of the project, thereby accelerating the production of the next orbital station project.

China - Multi-Module Space Station (CSS)

CLMSS or CSS (Chinese Large Modular Space Station) is a large PRC project that can become a full-fledged analogue of the ISS, although it will have a modest scale. The mass of the station will be one fifth of the current ISS, and its dimensions practically coincide with the Soviet Mir.

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International Space Station, abbr. The ISS (International Space Station, abbr. ISS) is a manned orbital station used as a multipurpose space research complex. has been in operation since the end of 1998 to the present.

ISS is a joint international project in which 14 countries participate: Russia, USA, Japan, Canada and members of the European Space Agency Belgium, Germany, Denmark, Spain, Italy, Netherlands, Norway, France, Switzerland, Sweden, and initially Brazil and Great Britain were among the participants.

There is a constant exchange of information between the Centers.

Station structure

The station is based on a modular principle. The ISS is assembled by sequentially adding to the complex the next module or block, which is connected to the one already delivered to orbit.

Each module has its own specific function: for example, research, residential, or adapted for storage.

This diagram shows all the main as well as the secondary modules that are part of the station (filled in), and those planned for delivery in the future are not painted over.

The arrangement of modules relative to each other often changes.

ISS Modules

Communications

ISS is equipped with internal and external multipurpose communication systems.

The transmission of the station parameters and the exchange of scientific data between the station and the flight control centers is carried out using radio communication.

Space tourists will be in orbit for at least a month - there they will be provided with everything they need.

NASA opens the International Space Station for tourism and business. The ISS is still the only place in space where people can get and where they can live. After this startling announcement, the first details of future travels began to emerge. TSN. and collected the most important of what is known now.

How is the flight to the ISS organized for tourists

NASA itself will not organize space travel. The agency will charge private companies for the stays of passengers on the ISS. In turn, private companies will take much more money from tourists for the flight of rockets into space and back - and profit from this.

As noted in NASA, such companies will be responsible for the composition of the crew and ensuring that the "private astronauts" are medical and prepared for the flight.

SpaceX and Boeing are currently developing capsules for the delivery of astronauts to the ISS with funding from NASA. On their "flights" will buy seats and astronauts agencies, and private companies for their tourists.

American startup Bigelow Aerospace said in a press release that it has already negotiated SpaceX and has paid huge sums to book four special "flights."

It is also known that "private astronauts" will go to the ISS once or twice a year. But when exactly this will happen for the first time is unknown. The space agency promises that the first private mission will take place in 2020, but whether it will involve tourists is unknown.

Bigelow Aerospace noted that NASA must first certify the SpaceX rocket and capsule for flights to the International Space Station. They plan to do this next year.

How much does an orbit ticket cost and what does it include

Private companies will pay NASA about $ 35,000 per night per passenger in orbit. This price includes a bed at the station, use of amenities such as air, food, water and toilet. You can also use Wi-Fi on the ISS, although you will have to pay for it separately. A gigabyte of internet will cost $ 50.

Certain restrictions are also envisaged: vacationers will not be allowed to go into outer space.

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