As surprising as it sounds, we live in space. A small layer of the atmosphere protects us from cosmic radiation and separates us from vacuum, silence, tranquility and infinite space, which may contain an infinite number of stars, planets, asteroids. The infinity of space in the universe is a mystery that is in plain sight and cannot be explained by science. Here are some interesting facts about space for kids and adults.
Scientists annually record the appearance of about forty new stars in our galaxy.
It is very quiet in outer space, since air is needed to propagate sound, and in interplanetary space it is a vacuum that cannot conduct sound waves.
A telescope, a device that allowed space objects to be brought closer, was invented by Galileo Galilei.
The diameter of the Sun is 109 times larger than the Earth, and 1.3 million times the volume. The mass of the Sun is 2 trillion quadrillion tons (two with 27 zeros), the mass of the Earth is 6 sextillion tons (six with 21 zeros). On a cosmic scale, the Sun is a very small star, for example, the Big Dog star is 1500 times larger than our star.
It takes about 50 million years to reach the nearest star, Proxima Tsentravra, at a speed of 96 kilometers per hour.
The mass of the Sun in the Solar System is 99.8%, the mass of Jupiter is 0.2%, thus the mass of the rest of the planets and asteroids is less than 1%.
Gravity on the surface of the Sun is 28 times greater than gravity on Earth. A person weighing 100 kilograms on the sun will weigh 2,800 kilograms.
Saturn, Jupiter, Neptune and Uranus have rings in the solar system. The asteroid Chariklo has two narrow rings.
Space travel is incredibly dangerous and requires courage at the level of insanity. And that's what makes astronauts and astronauts so cool. We are all aware of cases of large space launch failures. Remember at least "Challenger", "Columbia" or "Apollo 13". Astronauts and astronauts are very often in serious danger to their lives, but most of these cases, as a rule, remain in the shadow of history. Today we'll talk about ten little-known scary and tragic stories related to space, space launches, cosmonauts and astronauts.
Things don't always go smoothly in space
On March 18, 1965, the historic launch of the Voskhod-2 spacecraft into Earth's orbit took place. Mission goal: the first ever spacewalk. The control of the spacecraft was entrusted to cosmonauts Alexei Leonov and Pavel Belyaev. The flight was accompanied by numerous problems, but the most dangerous of them followed not from the ship, but from Leonov's space suit.
Fortunately, the idea turned out to be good and taught us how not to make space suits.
Soon after the spacewalk, Leonov realized that something was wrong. As soon as the astronaut found himself in the vacuum of space, he felt his spacesuit begin to inflate. The gloves swelled so much that they made it almost impossible to complete the tasks. Worse, the spacesuit was so inflated that it did not pass through the airlock, effectively locking the astronaut in a lifeless space. Desperate, Leonov decided to release some breathing oxygen to relieve the pressure inside the suit. The astronaut understood that if he failed, he would die from suffocation much faster.
Accidents happen in space
In June 1997, the Progress unmanned space truck docked with the Mir space station. Vasily Tsibliev, who was on board the station, carried out remote control of the Progress, checking with the cameras installed on board. Unfortunately, the screens of that time did not convey the best picture with the best sense of depth of perception. That the apparatus was approaching the station too quickly, Tsibliev, unfortunately, realized too late.
The Progress truck collided with Mir, damaging one of the station's solar panels, leaving a hole in its hull and spinning Mir uncontrollably. Fortunately, NASA astronaut Mike Fole, who was on the station, was able to calculate the optimal trajectory to stabilize the station and reported this by radio to the control center, which remotely started the Mir engines and stabilized its position. The damaged module has been insulated to avoid oxygen loss.
Danger awaits astronauts even on Earth.
One of the most common types of training for astronauts is being in a sensory deprivation chamber (read: pressure chamber). A person is immersed in a room or chamber, isolated from external influences (light, sound, smell), which imitates complete isolation in open space. As a rule, training takes several days. This type of training is not very enjoyable, but nonetheless considered harmless ... except in the case of March 1961.
If you approached two respected astrophysicists and asked them, for example, about the nature of the origin of black holes, you would witness the beginning of a heated and prolonged debate. The point is, scientists do believe that they know almost everything about space. Nevertheless, new discoveries are regularly made that catch ordinary people and sometimes astrophysicists by surprise. To your attention - 10 incredible facts about space that amaze the imagination and make you reconsider your worldview!
In 2011, astronomers accidentally discovered a giant cloud of steam trapped in the gravitational field of a black hole deep in the universe. Thus, they found the largest volume of water in history. The clouds, called "reservoirs" by astronomers, hold 140 trillion times more liquid than all of our planet's oceans combined.
It turned out that these clouds are not much younger than the Universe itself, and this even more interested scientists. So, Matt Bradford from NASA said that this discovery is another proof of the fact that water existed in the Universe even at the earliest stages of its existence.
So if we ever escape from Earth, or when the water supply runs out, we will know where to find it. All that remains is to build a giant intergalactic pump. But the main problem is not even this: the gigantic water cloud is located at a distance of 10 billion light years from our planet.
To cover the distance that light travels in 1 year, a person needs to walk without stopping for more than 200 million years! The length of the path will be about 9.5 trillion kilometers. In other words, if you started walking exactly before the appearance of dinosaurs on Earth, then about now you would reach the finish line.
Jessica Cheng, editor of Popular Science magazine, believes that such a trip would cause an unprecedented number of problems. First, you would need nearly 12 billion pairs of shoes. Second, you would burn 45 calories per kilometer traveled, so you would need unlimited food to replenish your energy.
Cheng also says that in 225 million years you would not have gone as far as you might think. Astronomically, 1 light year is a tiny distance. At the end of the journey, you would still be much closer to the Sun than to any other star. The fact is that the distance to the closest star to us, Proxima Centauri, is 4.22 light years. That is, it would take almost 1 billion years to get there!
In 1998, one of the spacecraft explored the asteroid Eros approaching the Earth and transmitted the data to scientists. The latter, after analyzing the information received, were able to make a loud statement. It turned out that Eros is a cosmic treasury containing untold riches. After analyzing the size of the asteroid, NASA suggested that if, like other asteroids, it is 3% metal, then it contains about 1.8 billion tons of deposits of gold and other precious materials, such as platinum.
According to Dr. David Whitehouse, Science Editor at the BBC, Eros is indeed a large cosmic body, but not the largest. Dozens of more massive asteroids are known. Whitehouse also took into account the volume of deposits of precious metals in the bowels of Eros and calculated that the total cost of this cosmic body reaches approximately 20 trillion dollars. This is more than the annual GDP of the United States of America. Unfortunately (and at the same time, fortunately), people are not destined to profit from this wealth in the near future. We have not yet learned how to stop asteroids or extract minerals from them right in space. Therefore, the only option for "appropriating" the gold and platinum of Eros implies its fall to Earth. But only in such a scenario, no one would be able to get rich: the collision would be fatal for all mankind.
Space will always interest people. Even those who are far from science. Therefore, it is no coincidence that every year we manage to learn some new facts about space.
In this article, we have prepared for you a lot of fascinating information about space and astronauts, as well as about the structure of the Universe in general. Perhaps you already know some things, but you will hear some things for the first time.
So, here are the most interesting facts about space.
Did you know that in 2003 did American astronomers find the 10th planet behind Pluto? She was named Eris.
This discovery was made possible thanks to a new and improved technique. Soon, other space objects were also discovered. They, along with Pluto and Eris, were called transplutonic (see interesting facts about Pluto).
It is worth noting that such discoveries are of interest to scientists also because they are trying to find out what advantages and dangers this or that cosmic body can conceal.
Scientists are constantly looking for life on other planets. This is due to the frightening events that are unfolding on Earth today. We are talking about the threat of nuclear war, epidemics, global cataclysms and many other factors.
Telling interesting facts about space, one cannot fail to mention the Moon. Indeed, despite the fact that, compared to other celestial bodies, the Moon has been studied best of all, we still do not know much about it.
Space exploration is one of the most significant milestones in the history of Mankind. Since ancient times, a person gazed at the stars and could not explain what is their attraction. Dreamers of the past built fantastic projects for the conquest of the stars and travel in extraterrestrial space. People even now dream of settling on distant planets. On the moon, all the plots have already been sold out for crazy money. And only in the XX century the critical mass of humanity's knowledge reached the level when people were able to overcome the gravity of the Earth and began to explore the Cosmos.
Yuri Gagarin became not only the first person on Earth to make the first flight into space, but also was the founder of many traditions. Subsequent Soviet cosmonauts repeat exactly the actions of Yuri Gagarin, performed by him before the first flight.
On site No 31, better known as the famous "Two" or "Gagarinsky start", not far from the Assembly and Engineering Building there are two small, one-story houses. On the night of April 11-12, 1961, before the launch of the Vostok ship with a man on board, the chief designer, Sergei Pavlovich Korolev, spent the night in one of them. In another house - Yuri Alekseevich Gagarin. Since then, these buildings have become known as "Korolev's house" and "Gagarin's house". How the pre-flight night passed, whether the designer and the astronaut managed to fall asleep, history is silent. But the tradition was established: the cosmonaut, who was to be sent from space flight, spent the night in "Gagarin's house".
The only exception was Svetlana Savitskaya, who for unknown reasons refused to spend the night in the “Gagarin's house”, and spent the night in a hotel room with her father. Even if we assume that she was afraid to spend the night alone in an empty house, then how to explain the courage of flying into space? Riddle.
Most likely, the women-cosmonauts did not observe yet another Gagarin tradition - to relieve themselves on the wheel of the bus that carries the astronaut to the rocket. On an April morning in 1961, Yuri asked to stop the bus halfway from the pad to the rocket. He left, wetted the bus wheel, and headed on, to conquer the cosmic expanses. Among men, the tradition has taken root.
Today these Gagarin traditions are a thing of the past, but his famous "Let's Go!" the whole world hears at every start of the Russian conquerors of the Cosmos.
A monument was erected in the city of Leninsk (now Baikonur) during the Soviet period, which today is the pride of not only city residents, but also everyone who is involved in the space industry, and just everyone who loves Space. The monument is a full-scale replica of the Soyuz launch vehicle. The rocket is fixed on a reinforced concrete pedestal at an angle to the horizon.
An ordinary person may have a question: why is the rocket not in its natural position, directed upward towards the stars, but at an angle?
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