In fact, the city of Kaluga is called the Cradle of Astronautics. As you know, it is located in the European part of Russia. And it has the status of an urban district. In addition, it is the center of the Kaluga region. Of course, the city has a rich history. But they are especially proud of the fact that it was on this earth that the father of astronautics K. was born and worked. Iolkovsky. The city respects and remembers the great scientist. The place where he lived was turned into a real museum. Thus, the native land of Tsiolkovsky became the cradle of Russian cosmonautics.
Konstantin Eduardovich Tsiolkovsky
It is interesting that the city has individual symbols. First, it is the coat of arms. On which the name Cradle of Cosmonautics is placed. This is, in a way, his motto. Second, the flag. On one part of it there is a coat of arms, and on the other there is a red vertical stripe. On which, moreover, the satellite is located. At the top is the crown of Empress Catherine the Great. Moreover, Kaluga has its own anthem.
Coat of arms and flag of Kaluga
In essence, the house of the father of cosmonautics is a museum estate. Interestingly, this is a simple, one might even say, modest house. It stands on the banks of the Oka River. Surprisingly, this is an ordinary wooden building, devoid of any frills. Although the domestic cosmonautics itself was born in it. There is free admission for tourists. Family photographs, manuscripts and drawings of Tsiolkovsky are available for the attention of visitors. It is obvious that the residents of Kaluga respect their historical heritage.
House of K. Tsiolkovsky
In fact, this is the Tsiolkovsky State Museum of the History of Cosmonautics. It was opened in 1967. Without a doubt, there are a lot of interesting things in it. For example, there is an exhibition of the history of Baikonur. Or, for example, they conduct tests here that allow us to estimate the scale of the universe. Surprisingly, you can put on a real space suit in the museum. Moreover, there is an opportunity to find yourself in the space station itself.
In addition, you can admire the Earth from the window of the orbital complex. It was created exactly like the Mir station. In addition, here you will find a sleeping place for an astronaut. And he himself can be seen at the controls of the ship's docking. Of course, all the elements and little things are well thought out. Once in the museum, it seems that you find yourself in the real world of space.
Tsiolkovsky Museum (inside)
Cosmonautics museums are one of the first places where children are taken. In general, you can visit them all your life. After all, the development of space does not stop. We have chosen the most interesting museums of cosmonautics in Russia, where you can study the history of the exploration of extraterrestrial space, observe the planets and get acquainted with bold futurological predictions.
Address: Moscow, by. Mira, 119, pavilion number 34.
Perhaps one of the largest museums in Russia. 120 samples of aerospace technology have been collected on a gigantic area. Remarkably, these samples have never been exhibited anywhere before.
In addition, visitors will see exhibits of enterprises of the military-industrial complex.
For history lovers - over 2000 rare archival documents and photographs. More than 50 exhibits were made specially for the center.
The complex consists of three exhibition zones.
There is an interactive part where you can try your hand at game simulators and visit the 5D cinema "Space Sphere".
Address: Moscow, Prospect Mira, 111 (metro station "VDNKh").
The history of the development of domestic space can be studied here in all details. The main tip is to take a guided tour. Without it, there is a great chance to pass by very interesting things. And here are collected so many rarities and interesting exhibits! Some of them flew into space, the other flew from there. Like a collection of meteorites.
Almost every Soviet article on the colonization of space mentions the inventor, philosopher and founder of cosmonautics Konstantin Tsiolkovsky. Tsiolkovsky saw a solution to the future problem of overpopulation and resource scarcity through the development of new planets. It was he who first wrote about future "etheric settlements" in Earth's orbit, made sketches of extraplanetary stations and came up with the idea of a space elevator. The scientist foresaw the creation of rockets and satellites, but his ideas turned out to be too innovative for the late 19th and early 20th centuries. But a little later, his theories became the main inspiration for scientists and dreamers during the period of active space exploration.
A space catapult, air cities on Venus and a flying transport ring - in the projects of Soviet inventors and artists.
The space era began on October 4, 1957, when the USSR launched the first artificial Earth satellite, and nine years later made the first contact with an extraterrestrial body - landed the Luna-9 station on the Moon. With the Soyuz triumph in the unofficial space race, space fantasies have been reborn. The universe now seemed closer than ever, which means the time has come for bold plans.
First for the Bolsheviks, and then for Soviet writers and directors, space became a place of communist utopia. She performed two tasks: the establishment of new beliefs and values, as well as the adaptation of political ideas for the strategic development of the country
Researcher at the Center for the Study of Science and Technology at EUSP in]]> Research]]> "Formation of space mythology as a factor in the development of scientific space research in the USSR and Russia"
The main source of knowledge and inspiration for the Soviet people was the popular science journals "Knowledge - Sila", "Science and Technology", "Inventor and Rationalizer" and many others. Perhaps the most "free" in relation to the future in space was the Komsomol magazine "Tekhnika - Molodyozhi". Pictures of artists were printed on the covers, drawings of lunar rovers and rocket diagrams were inside, stories of Soviet and foreign science fiction writers were published there. The magazine encouraged the flight of technical thought and regularly hosted reader contests for the vision of the future.
Most of the articles in Soviet journals described existing data on space and restrained theories from the field of astrophysics. Few academic authors have ventured into bold fantasies about populating planets or creating starships, preferring to leave it to writers. Scientific articles were mostly pragmatic in nature.
PhDs and professors preferred to cut off the romance of conquering the universe. Instead, they relentlessly emphasized how advances in satellite launches could help track the weather, establish satellite communications between continents, gain a new source of energy, or conduct experiments in a vacuum. Rare articles on the construction of extraterrestrial objects were necessarily accompanied by an assessment of the benefits to the Soviet people and practical application in the economy. But a few really bright ideas still made their way through scientific skepticism.
We know Konstantin Tsiolkovsky as a theoretician of cosmonautics, as a person whose striving for the stars was not hindered by endless poverty, or progressive deafness, or isolation from the scientific community. But he is much less known as the author of cosmic philosophy and the founder of ufology.
Tsiolkovsky's deafness as a result of complications after scarlet fever suffered in childhood was his curse. He confessed: “Deafness made me suffer every minute of my life spent with people. I always felt isolated, offended, outcast with them. This deepened me into myself, forced me to seek great deeds in order to win the approval of people and not be so despised ... ".
Due to hearing problems, Tsiolkovsky could not really study at the gymnasium. He did not hear the explanations of the teachers, only scraps of words reached him. But the teachers did not make discounts on hearing loss, so the future theorist of cosmonautics could not boast of good academic performance. He was dropped twice for a second year and was eventually expelled.
The boy was left to himself, and this became his salvation: all day long he was drawing and making some amazing mechanisms. Therefore, his father decided that it was simply necessary for Konstantin to study, and sent him to Moscow - to the Higher Technical School (now the Bauman Moscow State Technical University).
But 16-year-old Tsiolkovsky, having arrived in the capital, decided that he would manage without a school. He spent almost all of his meager funds on the purchase of books and equipment for independent scientific experiments. As a result, eating only black bread, he weakened and was forced to return home, where after some time he managed to pass the exams for the right to be a school teacher.
Tsiolkovsky started teaching. First in Borovsk, and then in Kaluga. And although he saw in teaching only a way of earning money, he was very responsible for this activity. It is no coincidence that even in tsarist times he was twice presented with a reward for conscientious work.
He received his third order from the Soviet regime - for his works in the field of the theory of space flight. However, these two paths of Tsiolkovsky - space and pedagogy - did not intersect anywhere, and in the school where he taught, no one knew about his rocket-space "hobby". He achieved everything himself and in many ways was the first and only, and not only in Kaluga, but throughout Russia.
Despite his physical disabilities, and perhaps thanks to them, Tsiolkovsky was distinguished by heightened ambition. He rightly considered himself a genius and sent work after work to Moscow and St. Petersburg, where the entire scientific elite of that time was concentrated. But correspondence communication with luminaries did not work out. Scientists did not let him into their ranks: they did not even condescend to correspond with an eccentric from Kaluga.
So, once Tsiolkovsky sent a "Report on experiments on air resistance" to Professor N. Zhukovsky - a recognized luminary in the field of aerodynamics. There was no answer. Then he sent the second and last of the remaining copies. But he did not receive an answer to this message either. The "report" was extracted from the archives and published only 50 years later, when Tsiolkovsky was already a recognized scientist. And similar stories with the works of the Kaluga genius happened more than once.
“It is sad and painful to think that even the largest people have such pitiful weaknesses that are usually inherent in small and insignificant people,” wrote Konstantin Eduardovich. “Only for many years could they convince me that Professor Zhukovsky set one of his tasks to eradicate my name from the scientific press by means of a conspiracy of silence…”.
Our everything. Konstantin Tsiolkovsky: dreams of space
Lecture “Kaluga Dreamer and Dreamer: Konstantin Tsiolkovsky” | Dmitry Velichko
Konstantin Tsiolkovsky - Premonition of space. Geniuses and villains.
Konstantin Tsiolkovsky - inventor, philosopher, teacher. He stood at the origins of theoretical cosmonautics, was the first to find a justification for the use of rockets in space flights, and proved the need to use the so-called "rocket trains", which were the prototype of modern multistage rockets.
For thousands of years, man looked into the starry sky, asked many questions about how the Universe works, whether there are intelligent beings there, and once dreamed of visiting other planets. Thanks to Konstantin Tsiolkovsky, the dream of mankind gradually began to come true. He dedicated his life so that one day everyone would see the first man in space, thanks to his developments, the most powerful airplanes, rockets and orbital stations appeared. Many did not understand him, public opinion more than once condemned the works of the great scientist, but he was not used to giving up, and stubbornly moved forward.
Konstantin Tsiolkovsky was born on September 17, 1857 in a small village called Izhevskoye near Ryazan. The boy received his name from a priest during his baptism. Father's name was Eduard Tsiolkovsky, his ancestors were impoverished Polish nobles. He worked as a forester. Mom - Maria Yumasheva, housewife. She is Tatar by nationality, at one time she graduated from the gymnasium, and she was engaged in teaching her children (and there were thirteen of them in the family). They got married when Maria was 16, Edward was ten years older than her.
Maria gave her children reading, writing and arithmetic skills. Kostya was very fond of reading, his first book was "Tales", written by Afanasyev. The boy himself tried to put familiar letters into syllables, and then into words. When he learned to read passably enough, he reread the entire home library. Older children laughed at him, he received the nickname of a dreamer and an inventor, everyone dismissed his childish "nonsense". Kostya had no choice but to communicate with his younger brother and share his thoughts with him.
At the age of nine, Kostya suffered from scarlet fever, which caused complications. The boy did not hear well, so he could not take part in children's games, he had almost no friends. But at this time he is fond of creating various crafts using wood and cardboard. Soon he could boast of a decent collection of his products, consisting of a variety of figurines - clocks, sleds, castles and houses. There was also a carriage moving against the wind, because a smart boy thought of inserting a mill and a spring into it.
In 1868, my father lost his job, and the family moved to the Vyatka province, to the city of Kirov, where his brothers lived. With their help, he again received the position of forester. The Tsiolkovskys settled in a merchant house that previously belonged to Shuravin. In 1869, Kostya and his brother began their studies at the men's "Vyatka gymnasium". Kostya studied with difficulty, the teachers strictly asked the students, the subjects seemed very difficult to him./n>
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