With the development of international tourism, the scope of its activities is expanding, new directions appear, sometimes completely unexpected. Space tourism can be attributed to unusual projects. It is gaining more and more popularity, turning from fiction into reality.
American citizen Dennis Tito is considered the first space tourist. He flew in 2001 to the Mir orbital station on the Soyuz TM-32 spacecraft. Weekly tour of 128 turns around the planet cost the traveler $ 20 million. Today, the cost of a tourist flight into space has doubled.
Space tourism was first discussed back in the 60s. It was a period of major advances in this area:
In the mid-1980s, the fantastic idea of space tourism took shape. The Challenger crew was to go into space with the first American tourist on board. However, the explosion of the spacecraft at launch and the death of all passengers suspended the space travel program in the United States for a long time.
Today Russia is the leader among countries providing space tourism services. Seven travelers have already visited the ISS. Those who wish are also offered a wide selection of special tourist programs carried out on the basis of the Cosmonaut Training Center in the Star City. Tourists can test themselves:
Roscosmos and Space Adventures provide space tourism services. The most reliable Soyuz TM ships are used to send tourists. The construction of space hotels is planned on the ISS. The list of services will be supplemented by the possibility of going into an open space, which will cost $ 15 million.
Throughout his centuries-old history, man wanted to know the world in which he lives, and thanks to this desire he made scientific discoveries and subsequently systematized them.
For example, this is how mathematics was born in Ancient Greece as a systems science, and its founders were Euclid, Pythagoras and Eratosthenes. No one will argue that since that moment mathematics has gone far ahead, but the theories proposed at that time laid the foundation for the further development of science.
The same applies to physics and astronomy - despite the fact that Aristotle was convinced that the Earth is the center of the Universe, it was he who made the conclusion about the spherical shape of our planet. If physics during its development "decreased" in scale and from classical mechanics made its way to the internal structure of protons and neutrons, then astronomy, on the contrary, expanded the boundaries and from the question of the relative position of the planets and the sun moved on to thinking about extraterrestrial civilizations.
But it was thanks to the laws and phenomena of physics that revolutionary discoveries in the field of astronomy became possible. So what do we know about space at the moment and what books can broaden your horizons on this topic?
Yakov Isidorovich Perelman - Soviet mathematician and physicist. It is he who is considered the founder of the popular science genre in literature, which involves the explanation of complex processes and phenomena in a simple and accessible language intended for a wide range of readers.
In his book, J. Perelman talks about the main provisions of astronomy, but this work, unlike school textbooks, is not a collection of dry facts and complex mathematical formulas, but vividly and entertainingly tells about various scientific aspects, explaining them and allowing you to look at them from the other side.
In the introduction to Entertaining Astronomy, the author wrote:
“Astronomy is a happy science: it, in the words of the French scientist Arago, does not need decorations. Her achievements are so exciting that you don't have to take special care to attract attention to them. However, the science of the sky is not only about amazing revelations and bold theories.
It is based on everyday facts that are repeated every day. People who do not belong to the number of sky lovers, in most cases, are rather vaguely familiar with this prosaic side of astronomy and show little interest in it, since it is difficult to focus on what is always in front of their eyes. "
The book consists of five chapters:
Books about interplanetary travel have been especially popular with readers at all times. Unlike other science fiction novels of the last century, books about space, for the most part, have always been based on some scientific and technical facts. Studying books of this genre, you can see that science fiction writers not only entertained readers with cosmic tales, but also accurately predicted the discoveries of the future. Satellites, space shuttles, drones, landing on the moon and much more were described in books decades ago. Now all these are real things, or theories of the best scientists in the world, waiting for confirmation. In addition, science fiction novels have made it possible for ordinary people around the world to travel between stars and planets.
I suggest you read the seven best books on interplanetary travel together.
One of the best science fiction novels about NASA is the book by American writer Andy Weier, The Martian.
The book tells about the near future, when a trip to Mars became a very real thing. Mission "Ares-3", studying the red planet, was forced to quickly evacuate due to a sandstorm. One of the six team members, botanist and engineer Mark Watney, was mistakenly pronounced dead and left on Mars. Thus, he was left alone on the whole planet, without connection to the earth, with limited resources of food and water. Watney devises a plan for how he will survive in a hermetic home on Mars for four years, before the arrival of the next Mars mission, Ares 4, which will take him back to Earth. At this time, NASA is developing its plan to rescue the astronaut.
Unlike other books in this genre, The Martian is filled with humor and self-irony. It's lightweight but still keeps the intrigue from the first to the last page.
In 2015, director Ridley Scott embarked on a film adaptation of the novel, starring Mat Damon.
Unlike The Martian, the famous novel by the Polish writer is imbued with Lem's inherent utopian mood. Solaris is considered a masterpiece of science fiction. Written back in the 50s of the last century, he foresaw the main tragedy of modern human civilization. With an incredibly high level of scientific and technological development of the race, the moral development of a person, as a separate unit, is constantly fading away.
The book tells about the collision of the space crew with the living, thinking ocean of the planet Solaris. Strange things happen to all the astronauts, which psychologist Chris Kelvin, who has just arrived at the base, is trying to figure out. Over time, Chris's girlfriend appears on board, who died 10 years ago. This begins to happen to all crew members. Will Chris be able to solve the mystery of the planet? The book "Solaris", using the example of contact with an intelligent ocean, reveals important philosophical, social and moral problems of all mankind.
The Sargasso in Space opens a series of exciting novels by American writer Andre Norton. The events of the plot take place in the distant future, when the Earth is destroyed by nuclear wars, and man has managed to discover many new galaxies and alien civilizations.
It's no secret that even huge companies with mind-blowing budgets and unblemished reputations have bad days. Not everything in the world of space tourism is going smoothly. Engineers and mechanics spend a lot of time developing and more importantly testing their creations.
Who is ready to send people into orbit? How much does a flight into space cost? How safe is it? - In this part of the review, we will consider the proposals and opportunities of space companies ready to send you on an unforgettable journey. Let's go!
World View together with its partners Paragon Space Development Corp. provide a 5-6 hour flight in a capsule attached to a balloon filled with helium at an altitude of 30 km. The capsule has room for 6 people, 1 crew member and 1 pilot. After the travelers arrive at the launch site, a team of technicians fills a high-tech balloon with helium and thoroughly checks everything before shipping.
The capsule rises within one and a half to two hours to a height of 30 kilometers, where 99% of the earth's atmosphere remains under you. For 2 hours, you are at peak altitude, enjoying breathtaking panoramas through huge windows. There is a bar on board in case you get bored.
At an altitude of thirty kilometers, winds can reach speeds of 200 km/h, if it will be noticeable in the capsule, then very little. The average distance from the take-off point to the landing point is 300 km (0-600 km). The pilot begins to release helium from the balloon, gradually lowering the ship, then, as in the previous case, the parachute opens, and the balloon flies further. Both companies assure that helium is absolutely safe and does not pollute the environment in any way. The material from which the ball is made is also. The average flight time from takeoff to landing can be 5-6 hours.
The flight price is $ 75,000, you can book on the official website.
The Spanish startup offers a flight in the "almost spaceship" Bloon for 4 people in the company of 2 pilots at an altitude of 36-40 km. The ship is a balloon capsule that slowly rises for 3 hours. All this time, you can safely move around the capsule, go about your business. It is possible to divide the capsule into two parts for 2 people in each for reasons of privacy and the desire of some people to retire. There is plenty of time to see the views of the Earth, so in order not to get bored of tourists, Zero2Infinity is developing several types of entertainment programs, including lunch delivered from any restaurant with 3 Michelin stars, rental of photo and video equipment, etc.
After 3 hours of flight, having enjoyed the views, the balloon detaches and the ship's landing system takes over. The main part of the system is a parachute, which allows pilots to glide onto a huge soft cushion. If you find yourself farther than the intended landing point, the pillows built into the capsule will work, designed to make the landing as comfortable as possible. There is also a toilet in the capsule.
Recently, the growing interest of ordinary people in space is becoming more noticeable. This is not surprising: it is impossible to imagine our everyday life without satellite maps, television and the Internet, Teflon pans, "zippers" on clothes, solar-powered calculators and other things familiar to everyone. It's hard to believe, but initially they were the most real space technologies!
Space has also become an integral part of our culture. The news feed regularly contains messages about the launch of new rockets and the exploration of distant planets. The highest-grossing blockbusters of our time take place in space. The rating of popular science TV shows and YouTube channels is consistently high.
Obviously, a modern person needs to navigate the ever-changing information field, but without basic knowledge about space, it becomes more and more difficult to do this. There is still a stereotype in the minds of people that space is incredibly difficult. In fact, space is much more accessible for a simple layman to understand. You will be convinced of this by reading the books of the AST Publishing House.
Neil DeGrasse Tyson is the director of the Hayden Planetarium, a world-renowned scientist. And at the same time, he is the "sexiest astrophysicist" according to People magazine and a popular blogger: almost 13 million people have subscribed to his witty messages on Twitter, and the number of views on his Youtube channel has exceeded 10 million. It was the combination of deep theoretical training and an original sense of humor that formed the author's style of Tyson so beloved by readers.
The book "Astrophysics with Cosmic Speed, or the Great Secrets of the Universe for Those Who Have No Time" is ideal for people who are just starting their acquaintance with the topic of space. First, it explains in a concise form the basic concepts on which the modern scientific picture of the world is built. Secondly, the ease of presentation of the material allows anyone to understand it: from a schoolboy to his grandfather, who has long forgotten the physics course. In addition, Tyson makes many references to the work of other authors, which will further help curious readers deepen their knowledge of space.
This book is a collection of Tyson's most popular articles written over 11 years. From them, the reader will learn what ridiculous mistakes the directors of films about space make, for what purpose Stonehenge was created, what will happen to those trapped in a black hole and whether the end of the world will come.
In addition to writing books, Neil DeGrasse Tyson also hosts the popular StarTalk show. There he talks with famous writers, artists, politicians, film and television stars about other, real stars and the world below them. Now the Russian-speaking reader has the opportunity to join this, no doubt, a cult show. And do it with pleasure: the book is abundantly supplied with color illustrations, and the material is conveniently structured in blocks and contains both purely scientific information presented in an accessible form, and entertaining - witty dialogues between the presenter and his guests, selected tweets of Neil DeGrasse and even recipes for branded cocktails author.
A recommendation from Neil DeGrasse Tyson: "A physicist who practically single-handedly instilled a love of science in a whole generation."
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