The Falcon 9 rocket is a test of the future of private astronautics
Private companies developing their own space programs hope they can go beyond space tourism and compete and collaborate with leading space powers.
The first swallow was a private spacecraft called "Dragon", launched on Tuesday May 22 from the American spaceport at Cape Canaveral. It was launched into orbit by the Falcon 9 rocket. "Dragon" went to the International Space Station and performs cargo functions.
It differs from other cargo spaceships in that it will return to earth, rather than burn up in the atmosphere. Existing cargo ships return to earth with debris from the station and burn up along the way.
What is this news for the history of space exploration? For the first time, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration has authorized a private company to launch a spacecraft.
In previous years, space exploration was considered a priority for states. The "Space Club" automatically implied international prestige and recognition of the achievements of science and technology. Undoubtedly, the main competitive struggle then unfolded between the USSR and the USA.
The question of who won this confrontation can still be considered open. The first man in space was a citizen of the country of the Soviets, and the first man on the moon was an American. But the Americans relied on the expensive and, as it turned out, unpromising Shuttle project, in which the spacecraft, after leaving low-earth orbit and entering the atmosphere, turned into a manned aircraft. It could be used multiple times.
But the excessive cost and disasters of two of the five shuttles put an end to this program. As a result, the United States was left without a functioning spacecraft system, which made Russia a monopoly in the implementation of manned space flights. The cost of one astronaut flying to the ISS on a Russian spacecraft is approximately $ 63 million. Private companies are promising that the amount of the flight on their rockets will be approximately $ 20 million.
But the Soyuz spacecraft currently performing space flights are outdated. This was stated in an interview with the Izvestia newspaper last year by the head of the Cosmonaut Training Center, pilot-cosmonaut Sergei Krikalev. The Soyuz is undoubtedly reliable, but it has become a rare and therefore too expensive car. "Union" is ineffective, as it requires too large expenditures. Many parts have long been discontinued and are made in small batches only for Soyuz, ”he said in an interview with Izvestia.
An alternative was needed, and it appeared in the person of Space Exploration Technologies, or simply SpaceX, which developed and launched the rocket. It is assumed that if the test missions are successfully completed, the Dragon spacecraft will be able to transport up to 7 astronauts simultaneously, while the Soyuz can only lift 3.
Elo Musk - the head of SpaceX and one of the founders of the PayPal payment system - intends to carry out the first manned launch of his spacecraft in 2015, other private companies engaged in the development of spaceships plan to do this by 2016-2017 ...
What space countries are there in the world?
Getting to space is not easy at all, so each country has chosen its own path. Someone's first attempt brought good luck, some took years to achieve something, someone gave up this venture altogether. Whatever it is, space has been explored a lot and many experiments continue to this day. From 4 October to 10, World Space Week is celebrated every year. During these few days, people are invited to remember all the successful experiments, discoveries that contributed to the fact that life on planet Earth has noticeably improved.
Of course, we cannot fail to mention which country opened the space age. This significant event happened on the territory of the USSR, just on October 4, 1957. In the evening of this day, scientists launched a rocket, which was supposed to throw a homemade satellite on orbit the Earth. The rocket fulfilled its purpose, the satellite safely separated from it and spent several weeks in space, flying around the Earth and transmitting important signals. Thus, Russia was ahead of the United States, because for many years the space race between them did not stop.
The Americans have also achieved considerable success, along with Russian scientists, they have conquered space and can be proud of their achievements. They launched their first satellite a few months later, and only a second attempt.
Today, space exploration is viewed differently. Someone wants to achieve prestige, thus, someone is trying to guarantee security for their country. Do not be surprised that even third world countries are doing well in rocketry. We'll talk about Africa, Asia and so on.
The list of the most popular space powers consists of three countries: Russia, the United States and China. It was on the territory of these states that the maximum number of successful and useful flights was carried out, real launch vehicles were built here, it was here that everything began, as they say, from zero.
Please note that today there are about 50 artificial satellites from different countries around the Earth. But it is interesting that only 13 of these states were able to independently create their own launch vehicle, which will deliver the satellite to orbit. Only 9 countries continue to release these missiles today. It is these countries that are called space powers, since they also have their own huge spaceports.
If you are interested in space, you can visit the popular travel company in Russia, which is called the Land of Space Tourism. Representatives of this company organize various space adventures for the curious. You can see with your own eyes the historic Baikonur cosmodrome, experience the full power of demonstration flights, as well as zero gravity travel on special space devices. As a result, you will receive a real certificate from the fact that you have made an unusual and extreme flight. Generally, pleasure, of course, not cheap, but it's worth it. More and more domestic and foreign tourists want to plunge at least a little into the mysterious world of space.
Each country that launches rockets into space has a special space program. Some countries may refuse such a program for various reasons. Iran did just that in 2016.
The number of "space powers" is growing steadily. Already today, 72 countries are conducting space programs. In fairness, it should be noted that only 14 of them have the ability to launch their objects into low-earth orbit. But only six states have real, serious developments in this direction, which are capable of sending people into space and returning to earth, and operating spaceships.
The USSR became the first space power, having launched in 1957 Sputnik-1 into orbit around the Earth. Soon a husky dog was sent into space, and in 1961 the first man - Yuri Gagarin. The Soviet Union did not restrict the use of its rockets to space. In 1959, the Americans forever lost the opportunity to "sit out" overseas. The Soviets built and launched the first intercontinental ballistic missile capable of delivering a nuclear strike many thousands of kilometers from their borders.
Russia regularly launches spacecraft, participates in the ISS, develops and operates satellites, including for tracking a potential enemy.
After the early failures, the United States took revenge by landing humans on the Moon and returning them to Earth in 1969. The Space Shuttle program became a model of American ambition, promising to make space travel as easy as travel to space. bus. Unfortunately, after two crashes and the death of people, the shuttle launches were stopped.
But the American National Space Program (NASA) continues its work. With the support of private capital, space exploration continues, plans for extraterrestrial tourism are being developed, and the planets and asteroids of our solar system are being explored. Probes are sent beyond its limits. Main current goal: landing humans on Mars.
China, no less than the USSR and the USA, was interested in the implementation of plans for intercontinental missiles. And he brought them to life. Having previously seriously lagged behind the leaders, by 2003 China had achieved a huge technological breakthrough. Under the leadership of its space agency (CNCA), the first astronauts were sent into orbit, manned missions to the Moon and Mars are planned, and the extraction of space resources.
ESA is a consortium of 22 countries. The headquarters is located in Paris, and the budget of the organization covers 50% of Germany and France. Perhaps the only space organization that does not pursue explicit military aspects. Its purpose is: the development of space science, observation of the Earth and climate, the complex application of navigation and telecommunication technologies.
Hello, dear readers of the Tyulyagin project! Today we will summarize 2019 and talk with you about the most visited countries in the world. In this article, I will tell you about the top 10 most visited countries in the world and give a complete list of tourist travel statistics for 2019. You will also find out which foreign destinations and countries are in greatest demand among Russians and Russian travelers.
Content of the article:
Before I release the full list, let's take a look at the 10 most popular tourist destinations on our planet. According to the UNWTO World Tourism Organization, the top 10 countries include:
France (89 million) has been the undisputed leader over the past few years. The country is attractive to tourists due to its rich culture and history. The country is home to 37 UNESCO sites and many other famous landmarks.
Spain (82 million) - tourism in Spain is one of the most developed in the world, because it accounts for 11% of the country's GDP. Mediterranean and Atlantic resorts, festivals, parks, nightlife and much more attract tourists from all over the world.
USA (79. million) - despite the fact that the United States is only on the third line, they earn the most from other countries on tourism. Some cities in the United States exist only at the expense of tourists. There are a lot of picturesque and varied places here due to the large area of the country's territory.
China (62 million) - in recent years, the number of tourists to China has increased significantly, these are countries with a unique culture, history and attractions. That there is only the Great Wall of China - one of the wonders of the world. In another couple of years, China will probably break into the top three.
Italy (62 million) - the heiress of the Roman Empire, is very rich in historical and architectural sights that attract tourists and make them dream of visiting this country. And such gems as Venice, Milan and Florence only enhance this desire.
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