In recent years, plans for the colonization of Mars are smoothly moving from the category of pseudoscientific fiction into an ever-faster approaching reality. In addition to technical and logistic issues, such projects raise much more boring topics - legal. And it seems that the two main ideologues of the expansion of mankind beyond the Earth have fully formed considerations in this regard.
We can say that the Starlink satellite Internet user agreement was the first sign of Elon Musk's serious plans to legally formalize the colonization of Mars. In this document there is a mention of the sovereignty of the settlement on the Red Planet and everyone who agrees to use Starlink, in fact, must recognize it when it appears. This is a very controversial point, but it can cause concern for lawyers.
Until recently, most social media users discussed this section of Starlink's terms of service in a purely humorous manner. However, the Independent turned to lawyers and specialists in international law. The consultants' fears and opinions were framed in a curious article entitled "Battle for Mars: How Elon Musk, Blue Origin and the US Government Could Establish the First Extraterrestrial Government."
From the point of view of lawyers, the above clause of the user agreement can be interpreted in two ways. Perhaps the extravagant billionaire is fooling around again and this is another joke. If, after the beta test of satellite Internet in the final version of the terms of its use, this paragraph disappears, then there is no need to worry about legal conflicts with SpaceX in the future.
But there is another option. Musk has already outlined his vision of the future of humanity in general terms. Elon plans to send people to Mars in dozens or even hundreds at a time using the Starship spacecraft and Super Heavy rocket system now being built. This process should begin already in the third decade of the 21st century, and its result will be a self-sustaining settlement on the Red Planet. Yes, Musk has repeatedly postponed the dates of his plans earlier, but almost all of them somehow became a reality - electric cars make a profit, rockets fly and return, and tunnels are dug.
The emergence of a colony on Mars will quickly become a legal problem. Even if at first the rule of Earth law or American law will act in it. When the population grows to at least a few hundred people, the settlement will need its own system of legal regulation. Communication with the Earth - about 20 minutes delay, transport communication - from six months to two years. In such conditions, it makes no sense to wait for material assistance or at least for operational advice.
Musk voiced his point earlier in 2016. According to him, the Martian settlements will be governed by the method of direct democracy independently of the Earth. Perhaps the "bookmark" in the user agreement is the first brick in the foundation of the Red Planet's constitution. According to the interviewed lawyers, even if this point does not make sense now, it will take root in the document and when the time comes it will have to be taken into account. At least, because a large number of people are used to it, and many support it.
With the head of Blue Origin, things are far from clear. The Amazon founder's space company is actively working on a super-heavy rocket, engines and lander. But the public becomes aware of her successes only in those areas of activity that are associated with interaction on joint programs. For example, as part of a competition for the delivery of goods to the moon or a project for a new rocket for the United Launch Alliance.
Nevertheless, Bezos himself has more than once described how humanity sees in space. People will live in giant colony stations that are fully capable of supporting themselves. And his company Blue Origin is working towards an early implementation of this idea. Jeff never elaborated on any political or social aspects of such space settlements.
Nevertheless, all the activities of Bezos's business projects in general and Blue Origin in particular are distinguished by careful planning. His undertakings are always worked out in detail for years to come and are carried out according to plan. This is well demonstrated by the success of the New Shepard development program. Space law expert at the Nebraska College of Law, Professor Von der Dunk, notes that Bezos should also have a solution at the ready, only more coherent and logical than Musk's. He has no doubts about it, since legal issues are exactly what a responsible businessman thinks out in advance.
Today I decided to speculate with you on a free topic, about the future that awaits us.
Articles of this format cause a good discussion on the channel:
So the topic is popular among the people and requires further discussion. Most of the publications that participated in the discussions are inclined, nevertheless, to a cautiously optimistic forecast for the future. This is good news, of course.
Maybe, unfortunately, maybe not, but the formation of the future of civilization on a global scale depends on us, ordinary inhabitants of the planet Earth. The formed consumer society sets completely different standards that our grandfathers and parents dreamed of fifty or forty years ago.
If you remember, the Soviet people in their global plans massively wanted to conquer space, fly around the world in hypersonic transport, ride on the roads in electric vehicles and gradually free a person from heavy physical labor.
So - all those dreams have not gone anywhere. Yes, and now they have not been fulfilled, but the best minds of the planet are working on their implementation, generously funded by famous multibillionaires, whose names are on everyone's lips.
The most famous billionaire for his extravagance in the galaxy closest to Earth. His fame is associated primarily with wide media coverage and a certain outrageous presentation of information about his activities.
At the same time, it must be admitted that inventions issued "on the mountain" from under the hands of Musk are quite capable of changing the very near future.
He plays as a possible savior of humanity from destruction. After all, we, the inhabitants of the Earth, are always threatened by something: the explosion of the Yellowstone supervolcano, the fall of a giant meteorite, a virus pandemic or a black hole in the middle of the Large Hadron Collider. And for any of these planetary emergency situations, Musk has an answer to the question - "And what to do, Elon Musk?"
The richest person on the planet earns $ 4.5 million an hour. His fortune is greater than that of Bill Gates, Warren Buffet and Mark Zuckerber. The owner of the online store Amazon, The Washington Post and the aerospace company Blue Origin - Jeff Bezos, whose fortune is estimated at more than $ 136 billion (according to Forbes in 2018), has conquered global business on all fronts.
Jeffrey Preston Bezos was born and raised in America in the state of New Mexico in the family of a Cuban immigrant. From childhood, Bezos showed an interest in technical sciences and engineering. A little boy disassembled and assembled everything he could reach in the house, created solar panels from foil and an umbrella and heard from his parents: "You are our greatest support and support."
Jeff successfully graduated from high school and after a few months without much difficulty entered the Physics Department of Princeton University, specifically, the Department of Electronic Measuring Instruments. Jeffrey graduated with honors and the Phi Beta Kappa University Community Award. However, as the multi-billionaire himself noted, during his studies at the university one interesting discovery befell him: there are a lot of guys like him in the world who understand physics much better than him. It was this discovery that subsequently determined the path of the richest man on the planet.
Jeff Bezos chooses computer technology and technical support as his field of activity, since the number of people interested in this industry was much smaller, and the specialty itself promised to become extremely popular in the future. And he was not wrong.
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The path of the future billionaire begins in 1994 on Wall Street, where he gets a position as a network developer for international trade. He ends his career on Wall Street as vice president just six months after joining the company. And immediately after that, he begins a trip to America, during which he comes up with the idea of creating his first brainchild - an online store Amazon. om. Six months later - on July 16, 1995 - Bezos launches an unfinished website for the future Internet giant.
Initially, Amazon was conceived as an online bookstore, but today it has become the largest marketplace in the world. By 1997, she entered the stock market with the first shares, and in 1999 brought her creator the title of "Person of the Year" according to Time magazine. In 2004, the company's profit was $ 588 million.
Jeff Bezos is the founder of the world's largest e-commerce company and one of the richest people on the planet. We will tell you how he manages to manage several businesses and share his secrets of success
Amazon founder Jeff Bezos is a success story. Photo: fortune. om
Amazon has been on the front pages in the media for many years, and since 2017, CEO Jeff Bezos has become frequent in the media, not least due to the fact that for several years he kept the status of the richest man in the world.
Payspace Magazine shares a biography of Jeff Bezos and his secrets of success.
The full name of the entrepreneur is Jeffrey Preston Bezos. The future Amazon founder was born on January 12, 1964 in the American town of Albuquerque, located in the state of New Mexico.
The biological father of the future billionaire, Ted Jorgenson, was one of the best unicyclists in town and often performed at county fairs and circuses when Jeff was still very young. The entrepreneur's mother, Jacklin, married Jogerson at the age of 16, but her first marriage lasted a little over a year.
The second time Jeff's mother got married when he was 4. She was chosen by Cuban immigrant Miguel Bezos, who later adopted the boy.
In one of his interviews, Bezos said that he remembers his biological father only when he needs to fill out a form for a doctor.
Jacklin and Miguel combined work at the bank with studying at the university, and from an early age told their son that he was their hope and support. Perhaps that is why Jeff, as a child, locked himself in his room, where, wielding a screwdriver, he created his "inventions" from scrap materials. Later, the elder gave him a garage for the experiments of his son Bezos.
On May 27, 2020, a historic event will occur - SpaceX will send astronauts Robert Bencan and Douglas Hurley to the International Space Station. An official NASA press release called the event "a new era of human space travel." The launch can be called a new milestone in space exploration for two reasons. First, for the first time since 2011, the United States has launched astronauts from its own land, on a rocket made in the United States. The second is that the rocket was made by the private, independent company SpaceX, owned by Elon Musk. Let's take a closer look at commercial space exploration and why it's important.
The first important steps in space exploration happened thanks to the space race between the USSR and the USA in the period from 1957 to 1988. The first man in space, the first woman in space, the first people on the moon - all these are the results of the struggle between superpowers for primacy in space exploration. After the collapse of the USSR in 1991, all space technologies, developments, launch sites and rockets of the former Soviet Union became available to private buyers. It was then that the beginning of commercial space exploration was laid. The main players at that time were four American private companies. They bought the key assets of the Soviet Union in this area during the space race. The most active of all was Sea Launch, founded in 1995 as a consortium of four companies owned by Norway, Ukraine, Russia and the United States. Although virtually everything there was operated by Boeing. Following the successful launch of the Zenit-3 SL in 1999, the FAA/AST has officially confirmed that Sea Launch is the world's first private operating infrastructure for launching missiles. Sea Launch has more than thirty successful launches and only three failures. Sea Launch CEO and mastermind Jim Meyser will later move to SpaceX as CEO.
All these events gave birth to a new movement and philosophy - NewSpace. The term NewSpace originated in the early 2000s and did not have a precise definition at that time. In 2018-19, the SatSearch agency conducted a study to find out what NewSpace is, experts concluded: “NewSpace is an approach that focuses on removing barriers to entry into the space industry by providing cheaper access to space and high-precision information from space, which can be applied here on Earth for the benefit of science and society as a whole. "
On December 4, 2018, two Kazakh satellites KazSciSat and KazSTSAT-1 were launched. But the satellites were launched not from the Baikonur cosmodrome (the rent of which costs the Russian Federation $ 115 million a year), but on a Falcon 9 rocket, from the Vanderberg military base in California. The authorities chose Elon Musk's company because its price tag is lower than that of Roskosmos. The amount of the deal remains a secret, but most likely it is about millions of dollars. And if sending satellites from an area thousands of kilometers away is cheaper than launching from his own cosmodrome, then Elon Musk is doing everything right.
Elon Musk is an eccentric billionaire, his persona became the prototype of Tony Stark in the 2008 film version. Elon's life story really resembles the story of a comic book character. But his dreams and endeavors lead us into the realm of science fiction. No wonder, because he is a big fan of Isaac Asimov. Musk dreams that humanity will become a multi-planetary species: "I really want to make sure that the path to Mars was a possible route - this is what we can achieve in our lifetime." Starting a rocket company is one thing, making it financially successful is another. But, as we can see from the example of the situation with Kazakh satellites, he succeeded.
SpaceX builds advanced rockets and spaceships. The company was founded in 2002, and its goal is to revolutionize the development of space technology. One of the tasks - the colonization of other planets - is the official motto of the company, which it has been following unquestioningly for 18 years. A major step towards colonizing other planets is reducing the cost of launching rockets. To do this, SpaceX has developed the Falcon 1, Falcon 9 and Falcon Heavy launch vehicles. From day one, the developers have pursued the goal of making them reusable. SpaceX has 93 launches, of which only 5 were unsuccessful. These are unprecedented figures, but the most surprising are 51 successful cases of the return of the first stage to Earth and drones. Many aerospace experts compare the importance of the reusable use of rockets with the first flight of the Wright brothers or with the Boeing 707 (it was with him that the era of jet aircraft began).
If Neil DeGrasse Tyson fully supports Musk on the issue of reusing rockets, then he agrees to fly to Mars only after Musk sends his mother there and returns her safe and sound. The Red Planet is SpaceX's cherished goal. It was about the colonization of this inhospitable planet that they started everything. But these are not some distant plans. This is reality in the face of the Interplanetary Transport System space program. At the moment, active work is underway on it, the Starship ship is systematically undergoing tests, and each prototype is replaced with a more perfect one. If everything goes according to plan, then in 2022 the Starship will make a flight to the planet Mars (cargo delivery), and in 2025 a crew consisting of civilian and state astronauts will land on the surface of the Red Planet. Whether Elon Musk's mother will be among the passengers is not yet known.
If the Mars colonization program looks like a mirage, then plans for the development of the Moon and circumlunar orbit have already been signed in an official NASA document. On March 30, 2020, SpaceX signed a contract to supply the station in the orbit of the moon. Construction will begin in 2022 as part of the Artemis program. The Artemis program deserves a separate material, but in short, it is a NASA project designed to consolidate the permanent presence of a man on the Moon and circumlunar orbit. The program includes the construction of a space station, a lunar base, gas stations, etc. In 2023, Elon Musk plans to send the first private passenger, Yusaku Maezawa, on a tour around the moon. According to experts, space tourism will initially be only a privilege of wealthy people, but with an increase in the flow, the total cost of a trip to the Moon and back will decrease, which will attract new tourists and huge investments.
In 2018, out of 30 launches of space rockets, 9 fell on SpaceX. At the moment, Elon Musk's company is the largest player on the market. Roscosmos director Dmitry Rogozin recently accused SpaceX of dumping prices. Elon Musk replied that the problem with Russian missiles is that they are not suitable for reuse.
In 2000, two years before Elon Musk, another billionaire, Jeff Bezos, founded a private aerospace company called Blue Origin. Jeff Bezos, like Musk, is a big fan of science fiction. Even as a child, in the school newspaper, he expressed the opinion that the Earth and its resources are finite. If as a child he only dreamed of space, then in May 2019, being the richest man in the world, Jeff presented a prototype lander for landing on the moon. Moreover, Blue Origin was included in the list of companies selected by NASA to develop and produce prototype spacecraft for landing on the moon as part of the new US lunar program Artemis. It turns out that a private company will be responsible for landing on the lunar surface. But Jeff Bezos's plans don't end there. Since the resources of the Earth are finite, he proposes to move all heavy and "dirty" industry into space. There are many advantages to this approach, the most obvious is the preservation of the Earth. Perhaps, in the future, it will even turn into a planetary reserve. But where then should humanity live?
This is where Bezos's plans are fundamentally different from Musk's. If Elon dreams of terraforming Mars and colonies on the Red Planet, then Jeff Bezos is sure that people will live in O'Neill's colonies. O'Neill's Colony is a plan to conquer space through giant space stations. The project was developed by a Princeton group of scientists led by Gerard O'Neill. O'Neill even showed this plan to Isaac Asimov, who was pleasantly surprised that he hadn't thought of it himself. After all, why conquer distant planets, inconvenient for life, when you can build huge stations near the Earth. This is where Bezos shows his logistic genius. He understands that building such huge stations will require an incredible amount of resources. It is almost impossible to lift them off the Earth, given the force of gravity. The delivery of resources from the Moon will require 24 times less energy costs. That's what Blue Origin needs the Blue Moon project for. If Elon Musk is an idealist and a dreamer, then Jeff Bezos is a pragmatist and businessman. He wouldn't invest in space just like that. This means that there is money, that means there is the future.
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