China is again ahead of the rest of the planet - on May 7, the country's manned space missions announced the successful return of a new generation spacecraft to Earth. The test flight lasted almost 3 days - during this time the device was in Earth orbit, stayed there for a certain time and landed. The spacecraft was specially designed to transport astronauts to a new orbital station, which China wants to launch soon. Is the ISS not needed soon?
China may soon become a space monopoly
The spacecraft was launched into orbit by the new Changzheng-5 B carrier rocket, the test flight took place at an altitude of 300 kilometers to 8,000 kilometers. The exact mass of the device remains unknown, but according to the project documentation, depending on the version, the ship weighs from 14 to 20 tons. The Chinese space agency officially recognized the test as successful, which means that the Celestial Empire has come close to the moment when it can already launch its own space station.
In addition to the ship itself, the scientists tested lubricants that were specially developed in China to work in zero gravity. No air leaks or other problems were found. Also on board the device was placed a device for launching nanosatellites to check its operation in space, and the compliance of conditions for living was checked using several types of oilseeds.
Launch of Changzheng-5 B from the launch site in China on May 5, 2020
Since the launch and return were successful, China is now preparing to send the base module of its space station into orbit. This will happen during the second flight of "Changzheng-5 B" into Earth orbit. Engineers expect that the station will be able to operate for many years and will eventually replace the ISS in orbit, which should complete its work in 2024. For this reason, China will systematically develop its space station, adding more and more modules to it - their launches have already been scheduled for the next four years.
It is known that the new station will be named "Tiangong", which translates as "Heavenly Palace". To many, this word may seem familiar, and it really is. Earlier, China has already sent Tiangong-1 and Tiangong-2 spacecraft into space in 2011 and 2016, respectively, but due to problems they had to be deorbited and flooded in the Pacific Ocean.
Tiangong Station was shown back in 2016
The station is 17 meters long, weighs 60 tons and can accommodate three astronauts. Like the ISS, Tiangong will be able to connect new modules to expand functionality. First, the rocket will launch the first module into orbit (the launch is scheduled for the second quarter of 2021), and then two more, which will allow additional scientific experiments. Then the Chinese want to send the first astronauts to the new station.
The Chinese space station will be able to maintain three astronauts on it for up to 180 days.
People's Daily Online - There are four spaceports in China: Jiuquan (Gansu Province), Taiyuan (Shanxi Province), Xichang (Sichuan Province) and Wenchang (Hainan Province).
The Jiuquan Cosmodrome is primarily responsible for launching re-entry satellites as well as manned missions.
It was founded in 1958 and is the first of four Chinese spaceports. Jiuquan has the largest number of launches in China. Like most Chinese spaceports, it is located in a remote location and is generally closed to foreigners. Although the site is geographically located within Inner Mongolia, it is named after the nearby city of Jiuquan in Gansu Province. Its coordinates: 40 ° 57′38 ″ N 100 ° 17′54 ″ E/40. 6056 ° N 100. 9833 ° E
The Satellite Launch Center is part of the space city of Dongfeng, also known as Base 10 or Dongfeng Base, which also includes the PLA Air Force test flight complexes, the Space Museum and the Martyrs Cemetery. Jiuquan is commonly used to launch rockets into low and medium Earth orbits with high inclination angles, and to test medium and long-range ballistic missiles. Its facilities are state-of-the-art and provide support at every stage of the satellite launch campaign. The facility includes the Technical Center, Launch Complex, Launch Control Center, Mission Control Center and various other logistics systems.
The Center covers an area of 2,800 km2 and can accommodate 20,000 people. Launch support facilities and equipment were likely to follow the example of their Soviet counterparts, and the Soviet Union likely provided technical support to Jiuquan. The first satellite, Dongfang Hong-1, was launched from the launch site in 1970 and the first manned space flight, Shenzhou-5, on October 15, 2003.
In August 2016, from the Jiuquan Cosmodrome, China launched the first quantum communications satellite.
In August 2018, Chinese private rocket startups i-Space and OneSpace launched suborbital rockets. On July 25, 2019, China's first private orbital launch from Jiuquan took place when I-Space launched its Hyberbola-1 rocket.
Chang'e-5 is back home with presents from the moon. The exploration of the space is endless. China is ready to work with other countries to make greater contribution to the peaceful exploration and utilization of outer space for mankind. pic. witter. om/vrhaPZWSvU
This capsule contains what humanity has been waiting for for 44 years. The last time before this, the lunar soil was brought to Earth by Luna-24. And it was 170 grams. Chang'e 5 delivered two kilograms, which the Chinese space agency has generously promised to share with researchers from other countries. True, there was a sharp remark about NASA: they say, the White House forbids you to cooperate with us.
By the way, earlier planetary scientists told Life that during the time of the Apollo and Soviet lunar spacecraft, scientists prudently kept a solid supply of delivered samples for future research - in case the flights to the moon stopped. Although then no one believed in the loss of interest in space. It's not hard to imagine how they came in handy.
The Chinese apparatus collected soil in two different ways at once. The drilling rig started up first. She sank to a depth of two meters and recovered about 500 grams. The remaining one and a half kilograms were collected from the surface by a robotic "hand" -manipulator with a special "scoop".
The device automatically packed the valuable cargo into an airtight "sausage", as Chinese experts sometimes put it - this is a tube made of a very strong fiber called Kevlar. This material was originally used to reinforce car tires or, for example, to give wear resistance to prostheses and various orthopedic devices.
It really was an incredibly complex mission. The Changzheng-5 launch vehicle (Changzheng translates as "Long March") on November 23, 2020, sent a probe into space, consisting of four modules. At an altitude of several hundred kilometers above the Earth, the structure separated and went to the Moon on its own. On approaching the destination, it split in two. The orbital part remained to wait in the lunar orbit. Inside she is the very capsule, near which the scarlet flag fluttered three weeks later. The other part - the landing module - went down along with the "take-off" on the "back". That's where they hit the moon.
Even last year, it was felt that 2020 will be very rich in Chinese space achievements. For this year, it was planned to test a new promising manned spacecraft, start deploying a heavy orbital station in orbit, launch a station to the Moon to deliver lunar soil to Earth and send a rover to Mars.
Each of these missions is, in itself, very effective. Well, the fact that they can be realized in one year strengthens the impression even more. But maybe I forgot something.
At the same time, the first mission from the list is already in orbit. We will analyze it in this article.
The general public learned about the existence in China of a program to develop a new manned spacecraft in 2016. On March 8 of that year, the chief designer of the Chinese manned program, Zhou Jianping, announced that the return of a prototype of this ship would be tested in the first flight of the new CZ-7 rocket.
About the spacecraft it became known that its developer is the 508 Institute of the Chinese Academy of Space Technology Research (CAST). This institute prepared a project for 2013, and, for example, in November 2015, a three-dome parachute system was tested
On June 25, 2016, CZ-7 actually sent this apparatus into space, along with other experimental satellites.
The prototype was made, approximately, at a scale of 60% of the base ship. It was a truncated cone with a maximum diameter of 2.6 meters, a height of 2.3 meters, and a mass of 2600 kg.
Here is a good video showing how to build and run this capsule
This is how she looked in flight with the upper stage
The next day, an operation was carried out to return the descent vehicle from orbit. Moreover, it was made according to a very amusing scheme. Upper stage YZ-1A first worked out the braking impulse and transferred the capsule to the trajectory of entering the atmosphere, then the SA and RB separated and the upper stage with an additional impulse returned itself to near-earth orbit.
The capsule successfully braked in the dense layers of the atmosphere, after which a supersonic stabilizing parachute was launched, and at an altitude of 10 km, the pilot and main parachute.
A search party found her shortly after landing. There was no parachute firing, so the capsule was dragged a little across the field.
If before the flight it was noted that until the project of the multipurpose manned spacecraft was approved by the State Council of the People's Republic of China, after the successful flight of the demonstrator, the situation has clearly changed.
October 1 marks the 70th anniversary of the founding of the PRC. The last two decades have been especially significant: from a backward agrarian country, China has turned into a world power of the first magnitude - on a par with the United States and Russia, and in some ways even superior to them. How did the Chinese succeed in this and which of their methods should we adopt?
650 km is the length of the land border between the Russian Federation and the PRC. "AiF" looked at how we live side by side.
Toilet is the soul of the nation
In the border Chinese Hunchun, visa-free for residents of Vladivostok, the Russians went on weekends to enjoy Chinese cuisine and local beer - the ruble exchange rate allowed. Now the expensive yuan has made the "beer" voyages unprofitable. But health tours have gained popularity.
Together with health seekers at 4 am we start from Vladivostok - 250 km by bus. A group of Chinese tourists is returning with us. Now they come to Vladivostok on gastronomic tours - to eat crabs, which are 3 times cheaper here than in China. All the way, they cling to the armrests of the chairs - in China, even country lanes are better than the federal highway connecting Russia with China and North Korea.
The first stop is in the village of Barabash. Rumor has it that all the shops here are owned by the Chinese through dummies. The headquarters of the Land of the Leopard National Park is also located in Barabash. Seaside leopards were on the verge of extinction due to the fact that forests were being cut down in China. However, the Chinese think little about ecology. “While renting land for agribusiness all over Russia, they use a lot of chemicals: pesticides, nitrogen fertilizers, which increase the intensity of fruit growth, but sharply reduce their quality,” says ecologist Sergei Simak.
Sun Ji, 28, is sitting next to her on the bus. She is the owner of a small shop in Hunchong. When Song calls her mother, she opens the door for her directly from her phone: the locks in many Chinese houses are electronic and are controlled from the application in the WeChat messenger. During the trip, all in the same messenger, my neighbor pays bills for electricity and water, replenishes the deposit for using the elevator - she lives on the 20th floor, and each trip costs her 0.2 yuan - almost 2 rubles.
The biggest surprise on the way for Chinese tourists was the lopsided boardwalk in the border village of Kraskino - you won't find this in China anymore. In 2015, Chinese leader Xi Jinping announced the beginning of the great toilet revolution. During this time, 100 thousand public latrines have been reconstructed. All are free.
In the border town of Hunchun, a city with a population of 200 thousand people, every second person speaks Russian tolerably well. “We are always ready to learn if it is profitable,” explains Zhang Yanmian, a hotel clerk. There are as many luxury cars on the streets here as you will not find in the whole of Primorye. And this despite the fact that the local province of Jilin is the poorest in China.
The "spaceport" in the Mojave Desert does not at all look like multilevel constructions from science fiction novels shining with lights. Scorched steppe, sand, scattered vans. In the town