Let's fly, comrades! How the USSR opened the era of "space tourism"

TOP 7 free online excursions to museums in the world

Annotation. The development of tourism is impossible without the development and implementation of innovations, which are a prerequisite for achieving economic success. One of the directions is the formation of new types of tourism, in particular virtual. The author describes its role and value for modern society; the author's definition of virtual tourism and criteria for the classification of virtual tours are proposed.

Keywords: tourism, innovation, virtual tourism, marketing, Internet, communications, investment.

In the modern world, tourism is one of the few spheres of social and economic activity, the development indicators of which show almost continuous growth. According to the World Tourism Organization (UNWTO), the number of border crossings for tourism purposes in 2013 increased by 5% compared to 2012, reaching 1,087 million international arrivals, these growth rates should continue, according to UNWTO estimates, in 2014, and by 2030, the number of tourists crossing the border should reach 1.8 billion people. In general, the tourism market accounts for more than 7% of world investments, about 5% of tax revenues, and about 9% of world GDP is formed by the tourism industry [1].

The constant growth in the number of consumers of tourism services, meanwhile, does not reduce the relevance of the task of forming a proposal for new products, tourists are becoming more demanding, tourism practices are expanding, and the desire for new sensations and impressions is growing. All new types of tourism are emerging, new destinations are emerging, the types of communication, transport, service are improving, the consumer of services is becoming more and more informed, educated and experienced. In a changing environment, travel companies are becoming increasingly aware of the need to bring new products and services to the market. Innovation in tourism is an indispensable condition for increasing competitiveness, increasing the consumption of tourism services, and achieving economic success.

Tourism Innovation

Considerable attention is paid in the scientific literature to the development of innovations in tourism, as well as to the innovative development of the economy in general. The authors focus on various aspects of innovation. It is pointed out that innovation in tourism is the introduction to the market of services that have higher consumer qualities at a certain point in time, while they are aimed at increasing the level of tourist satisfaction, his quality of life [2]. As M. Romanov, innovations in tourism imply the creation of a new product, which can be either a route or a place of rest, in addition, they should be based on a number of principles, the use of which leads to positive results [3].

According to A. Dud, innovations in the field of tourism are versatile organizational and management innovations, including changes in the legal framework, the organization of new types of tourism activities and new tourism products using modern technologies [4]. Thus, in general, when they talk about innovations in tourism, they primarily mean the development and promotion of new tourism products, the introduction of new management and organizational solutions, the application of new principles of service provision using modern information and communication technologies.

In many respects, innovations in tourism are due to the emergence of the information society, which forms a digital, virtual reality with specific social, cultural, consumer practices. If in traditional tourism activities service providers (hotels, carriers, restaurants, cultural institutions, etc.) work with the client through specialized enterprises - travel agencies (later, booking networks joined these specialized enterprises), then today, with the ubiquity of the Internet, the consumer “ goes "directly to the supplier of travel services and orders a hotel room on its website, tickets - on the airline's website and all other services in the same way directly from the profile manufacturer.

This shift of the consumer from the “real” market to the virtual one puts the tour operator in the position of an “extra link”, and the work of the consumer directly with the service provider is becoming more and more popular. If we take into account the latest developments in the Russian travel industry market - the bankruptcy of five travel companies in less than one summer month of 2014, then the Internet in a sense reduces its financial and other risks to the client. If travel agencies work on the basis of prepayment for the services provided to the client, then booking a hotel on your own allows you to pay for the service only upon receipt with the ability to refuse it until the very last moment. Most travel agencies do not provide such an opportunity.

All this noticeably changes the algorithm of consumer behavior of a tourist, which is increasingly actively forming its own tourism product - it determines the route based on the information provided by information sites of the destinations of interest; book the services of accommodation facilities, carriers, companies providing various related services (ranging from renting a car to ordering online for a specific date for dinner in a restaurant, for example, such as the exclusive Sublimotion restaurant on the famous Spanish island of Ibiza, where dinner is for one person costs about 1,500 euros, and is served per evening for no more than 12 guests).

The most common innovations in tourism related to digital technologies were innovations in the field of transport and accommodation services (e-reservations, e-tickets, e-visas).

One of the earliest innovations is the “electronic ticket” service (or “paperless ticket”, which also allows online check-in for a flight), as well as electronic sales in general, which make it possible to receive the necessary information about hotels. cultural institutions, events in the destination and various travel-related services. These types of innovations, their pros and cons have already been discussed in some detail in the literature [5; 6; 7].

A separate trajectory is made up of innovations in the types of tourism, due to the emergence and widespread use of information and telecommunications and Internet technologies. Virtual tourism stands out among the new types of tourism today. Note that due to the electronic integration of all types of communications, a new symbolic environment is being built, where virtuality becomes reality, and reality becomes virtual.

Virtual tourism as a new type of tourism

Do you dream of traveling and visiting the best attractions around the world? Now you have a unique opportunity, without leaving your home, to walk through the Louvre or get acquainted with the architecture of Greece. All that is needed for this is Internet access and special sites.

The situation in the world has changed the plans of many people. It is not known when we will be able to visit world sights, new cities and countries again. In this regard, the tourism industry, as far as possible, has gone into the online space. Of course, nothing can replace real travel with flights and attendant hassle. But, nevertheless, you will not be left without pleasant impressions.

The most visited are virtual excursions to art museums. Such online travel will be interesting for both adults and children. Pupils and students can study history and art in such a non-trivial way.

To get to the site with an online tour, click on the title of the museum you need.

What museums are worth visiting on a virtual tour

Louvre - Paris

One of the main attractions of France is the world-famous art museum. The Louvre is the most visited museum in the world. The expositions of this museum have a large geographical and temporal coverage. The Louvre collection is a unique piece of art. Even a person far from art will get incredible impressions from this museum, and an online tour will help with this. On the official website of the Louvre, there are virtual tours that everyone can get acquainted with.

Tretyakov Gallery - Moscow

The main museum of Russian national art provides virtual tours. Thanks to such an excursion, you can get acquainted with the best works of Russian artists who have made a great contribution to world art. On the website of the State Tretyakov Gallery, you will find virtual tours that reflect the work of artists such as Serov, Aivazovsky, Shishkin and others.

Hermitage - St. Petersburg

The Hermitage is one of the world's largest museum complexes. The museum is among the ten most visited around the world. The Hermitage collection includes about three million works of art. In a virtual tour, you can choose any showroom and walk through it. You can also see all the expositions in order. The tour is accompanied by commentary, which allows not only viewing the paintings, but also finding out useful information for a complete study.

The author proposes the author's definition of virtual tourism and criteria for the classification of virtual tours, characterizes the role and value of virtual tourism for modern society.

By the mid-seventies, the heat of the space race between the USSR and the United States subsided somewhat. The general relaxation of international tension even made it possible to carry out on July 15, 1975, the first Soviet-American space flight "Soyuz-Apollo" in history.

Unfortunately, this initiative has not been continued. Then the Soviet Union decided to independently develop the idea of ​​international space flights.


Back in 1967, a program for joint work in the exploration and use of outer space for peaceful purposes was adopted, which was joined by the socialist countries: Bulgaria, Romania, East Germany, Cuba, Mongolia, Poland, Czechoslovakia. Initially, the program provided for joint research in space physics and biology, meteorology, and remote sensing of the Earth. The USSR provided rockets and spacecraft, while other countries developed research programs and related scientific equipment. The program was named Intercosmos.

At first there was no talk of sending cosmonauts from socialist countries into orbit. But in the mid-seventies, preparations began in the USSR for the launch of the first orbital station of the second generation: Salyut-6.

Unlike its predecessors, the station was designed for a longer service life. In addition, it was equipped with two docking stations, which created new opportunities. Now the main expedition could receive incoming cargo ships with food, water and scientific equipment. In addition, it became possible to send a second crew to the station, which could work together with the main one. These short-term missions are called visiting expeditions.

It was decided that the "visiting expedition" will also include cosmonauts from socialist countries, who will be able to carry out scientific experiments on board the Salyut-6.

Strict selection

In 1976, an agreement on the implementation of manned flights within the framework of the Intercosmos program was signed. The selection of candidates began almost immediately in the countries included in the program.

They did not invent the bicycle: as in the USSR, first of all they were looking for candidates among military pilots. Preference was given to those who studied in the Soviet Union, which means they had a high level of proficiency in Russian.

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