© V. ytkin © State Museum of the History of Cosmonautics. K. Tsiolkovsky, Kaluga Section "Research of scientific creativity K. Tsiolkovsky" 2007
The question of the cosmic future of mankind from K. Tsiolkovsky, about his place in the "Cosmic Philosophy" of the scientist and in his work seems to be one of the most significant, pioneering and important both from the point of view of Tsiolkovsky himself and from the point of view of the development of space anthropology.
At the center of Tsiolkovsky's ethics and philosophy is man and man's happiness. The social and anthropological ideal for K. Tsiolkovsky is a perfect, ideal person and a perfect society. For a happy atom-spirit is not needed by itself, it has no sense, no axiological significance. But it appears and everything falls into place when we take an anthropocentric position in relation to the views of Tsiolkovsky. Perhaps the term "anthropocentrism" is not entirely correct in relation to anthropocosmism. If we admit that humanity will meet with a different mind, then this position will immediately become flawed. Perhaps, it would be more reasonable to call Tsiolkovsky's position "intellectocentrism" (reasonocentrism), implying that the scientist did not separate the terrestrial civilization from other probable cosmic civilizations.
Tsiolkovsky wrote that man, being the result of evolution, only recently emerged from the animal kingdom: “Even higher animals (man) are very imperfect. For example: the life expectancy is not great, the brain is small and poorly arranged, etc. In essence, there is only the result of adaptation to the conditions of life on Earth, mainly to life at the equator, and a sign of unfinished phylogenetic development (evolution). " Approaching the problem of anthropogenesis, Tsiolkovsky comes to the conclusion that, first of all, humanity has not completed its evolution, moreover, the present state of man is an initial state, from the point of view of his evolution.
Tsiolkovsky makes the only correct and logical conclusion that in the changing external conditions of the environment, evolution will continue, and on those planets on which life is potentially possible, it will adapt to the changing conditions there: “... and on cold and hot planets there are possible beings composed of those seas, atmospheres and soils that exist on the planets. "
The scientist believed, in general, that the mind, developing in space according to uniform laws in accordance with the principle of monism, should have a similar appearance, namely, be anthropomorphic. But the main factor that can really affect the differences, say, in the growth of living things or the way they move (their biomechanics), is the gravity of the planet.
How did Tsiolkovsky imagine these hypothetical probabilistic animals that could potentially inhabit other planets? What is their general form: growth, mechanics of movements and other probabilistic parameters. In general, the scientist notes that: “we are talking about creatures similar to people, only more perfect. Between them there can be all kinds of breeds adapted to life on all planets ... "
Kostya has been fond of engineering since childhood. Movement without human participation, the action of a spring on an object, carriages and locomotives - all these were homemade toys on a home machine. Impressed by the success of his son, the father sends the boy to Moscow, but it is not easy to enter the school. Having achieved nothing, Konstantin returns home, takes an exam to become a teacher, and earns a living as a teacher.
It was during this period that Tsiolkovsky, whose quotes about human patience we hear every day, completely devoted himself to the invention of mechanisms. The self-taught scientist did not create a rocket, but his idea of a jet engine (inertia creates energy) inspired Sergei Korolev and Andrey Tupolev, was a catalyst for inquisitive minds.
Tsiolkovsky's quotes about a person and about himself are taken from life, born by thinking.
The main thing for the inventor has always been science and its advancement. The desire to know the cosmos gave meaning and strength to the most daring ideas. Theoretical cosmonautics was born when a scientist proved the necessity of using rocket "trains" and the use of several stages for a rocket.
More than 210 works by K. have been published on this site. Iolkov's philosophical character, some of which are published for the first time.
We, the team of this Project, are confident that the Personality of K. Tsiolkovsky deserves that the results of research and the fruits of the reflections of this great scientist and thinker be available to everyone absolutely free.
All the works of the great seer are designed in the form of electronic books in PDF format, which allows readers to study them from any personal computer or mobile device.
Tsiolkovsky's rocket theory
“The Earth is the cradle of humanity. But you can't live in a cradle forever. " This statement belongs to the Russian inventor, an outstanding self-taught scientist Konstantin Eduardovich Tsiolkovsky.
Tsiolkovsky is called the father of astronautics. Back in 1883, in his manuscript "Free Space", he expressed the idea that one can move in space using a rocket. But he substantiated the theory of rocket propulsion much later. In 1903, the first part of the scientist's work was published, which was called "Investigation of World Spaces by Reactive Devices". In this work, he cited evidence that a rocket is an apparatus capable of performing space flight.
Tsiolkovsky was engaged in scientific developments in the field of aeronautics and aerodynamics earlier. In 1892, in his work "Theory and Experience of a Balloon", he described a controlled airship with a metal shell. In those days, the shells were made of rubberized fabric. It is clear that Tsiolkovsky's airship could serve much longer. In addition, it was equipped with a gas heating system and had a variable volume. And this made it possible to maintain a constant lifting force at different ambient temperatures and at different heights.
In 1894, the scientist published an article "Aerostat or bird-like (aviation) flying machine", in which he described an aircraft heavier than air - an airplane with a metal frame. The article provided calculations and drawings of an all-metal aircraft with one curved wing. Unfortunately, at that time Tsiolkovsky's ideas were not supported in the scientific world.
Many generations of scientists have dreamed of flying beyond the Earth - to the Moon, Mars and other planets. But how will the aircraft move in space, where there is absolute emptiness and there is no support, pushing off from which it will receive acceleration? Tsiolkovsky proposed using a rocket propelled by a jet engine for this purpose.
There is no solid, liquid or gaseous support in outer space. And the acceleration of the spacecraft can only be imparted by the reactive force. For the emergence of this force, external influences are not needed. It occurs when combustion products flow out of the rocket nozzle at a certain speed relative to the rocket itself.
The main part of the rocket engine is the combustion chamber. In it, the process of fuel combustion takes place. There is a hole in one of the walls of this chamber called a jet nozzle. It is through this hole that the gases formed during combustion are emitted.
The products of fuel combustion in engines are called the working fluid. In general, a working fluid is a kind of conditional material body that expands when heated and contracts when cooled. It is different for each type of engine. So, in heat engines, the working fluid is the combustion products of gasoline, diesel fuel, etc. In rocket engines, the combustion products of rocket fuel. And the fuel for rocket engines also varies. And depending on its type, nuclear rocket engines, electric rocket engines, chemical rocket engines are distinguished.
Eve of the 160th anniversary of Konstantin Eduardovich Tsiolkovsky.
Tomorrow is the anniversary! We can take stock of our struggle to save the Tsiolkovsky House, and we must share with the group members our plans and concerns regarding the future of the historical relic, the destruction of which we managed to prevent. The Tsiolkovsky house on Voznesenskaya Street in Ryazan TO BE is, for today, the decision of the authorities. Show in full. As for its future, during several joint meetings held over the past summer in the offices of Deputy Governor E.I.Bunyashina and Minister of Culture V.Yu. Popov with the participation of defenders of the Tsiolkovsky House, the Concept of the Memorial and Educational Complex KE Tsiolkovsky in the Ryazan region ", the text of which has already been published several times in our group. According to this plan, a Memorial Center will be organized in the Tsiolkovsky House, which will include a number of exhibitions directly related to the biography and creative heritage of the Russian genius. Among them, the themes of Russian cosmism are considered as the most priority ones; the manifestation of the scientific and technical genius of Tsiolkovsky not only in astronautics, but also in aeronautics and aviation, the study of the World Ocean and the creation of hovercraft, energy and cosmobiology; the role of the Ryazan people in cosmonautics and rocketry. The final decisions on organizing the work of the future "Memorial and Educational Complex" have not yet been made, but so far the defenders of the Tsiolkovsky House, public activists, are at the center of this process. And we hope that despite the interest shown by the authorities, the initial concept and spirit of the conceived project will remain unchanged. There is a lot of work to be done, but today one can foresee a large number of problems in the preservation of the Tsiolkovsky House as an architectural object, and in the organization of the Memorial Center, and in its further functioning. Therefore, we thank our teammates for the work done and call on to support us in making our proposals a reality. Although at the moment the outlines of the working group on the implementation of the Concept are outlined, all those sympathetic to our cause are invited to participate: lawyers, artists, builders, museum workers, guides, historians, ethnographers, architects, public activists, astronomers, philosophers, transport workers, businessmen. There is work for everyone. We will be glad to cooperate with those who supported, supports and will support the Tsiolkovsky House in its full return to a new life. anniversary, friends!
. k/i/P0RDQk6t3Gksgg (Image "Along the rainbow" from the diptych "The World of Tsiolkovsky", author - Alexey Petrovich Akindinov from Ryazan)
On this day, in 1934, the Soviet stratospheric balloon "Osoaviakhim-1" for the first time in history reached an altitude of 22 km! But unfortunately, during the descent, it crashed, the entire crew died. Many believe that the "Space Era" began in 1957, simultaneously with the signal of the first artificial Earth satellite, or even on April 12, 1961, together with the famous "Let's go!", By Yuri Alekseevich. But this is not true, or rather not completely true, because the road to the stars in the Soviet Union began to be paved back in the early 30s. Show in full.
Stratostats and stratosponsors: In 1930, several talented engineers of the Leningrad branch of OSOAVIAKHIM came up with the idea of building a new stratospheric balloon to conquer record heights for that time. However, due to financial difficulties, direct work on the project began only at the end of 1932. Vasenko was appointed the chief designer of the stratospheric balloon, and the experienced engineer Chertovsky was appointed the head of the work.
In June 1933, the shell "Osoaviakhim-1" was brought up to a volume of 24940 m³. In August of the same year, the completed stratospheric balloon was examined by a commission of the Civil Air Fleet under the leadership of Spassky and, despite the fact that the cockpit hatch was deemed unsatisfactory to close it if possible, allowed the aircraft to operate. To conduct scientific experiments and observations, the OAX-1 stratospheric balloon was equipped with the best instruments at that time, created at the Main Geophysical Observatory, some of the equipment was prepared at the Radium and Physico-Technical Institutes. The Institute of Experimental Biology petitioned for fruit flies to be taken into the stratosphere. Initially, the start of "Osoaviakhim-1" was scheduled for September 30, 1933, but meteorological conditions forced the flight to be postponed. Due to the unimproving weather, the flight of the stratospheric balloon was postponed by the decision of the Central Council of Osoaviakhim until the warm days of the spring of 1934. The scientific equipment of the gondola was dismantled and sent to Leningrad, the shell of "Osoaviakhim-1" was folded and put into a cover. In the fall, in a conversation with journalists, the commander of the stratospheric balloon "USSR-1" (which shortly before that reached the mark of 19,000 meters) Prokofiev made a revolutionary statement that he and his crew were preparing to repeat the raid into the stratosphere, without waiting for the onset of heat, in winter.
This prompted Pavel Fedoseenko to submit a report to the Central Council of Osoaviakhim with a proposal to fly in winter. The CSO gave the go-ahead, and the testers began to prepare for the flight. Despite all the efforts of the members of Osoaviakhim, it was not possible to prepare the flight in 1933, and it was again postponed to January 1934. On January 8, 1934, Osoaviakhim-1 was delivered to the launch site in Kuntsevo. It was decided to devote the flight to the 17th Congress of the Communist Party, which was held in those days in Moscow, about which the crew members gave a number of interviews and spoke on the radio. On January 0, 1934, from 8. 0 to 9. 0, the final pre-flight training of "OAX-1" was completed and the final weighing of the stratospheric balloon was made. On the eve of the estimated weight of the Osoaviakhimovtsy added 180 kilograms of ballast. Thanks to the use of maneuverable and emergency ballasts, it became possible to raise the flight ceiling to 20,500 meters. on the end of pre-flight training for "Osoaviakhim-1" with a crew of three people: crew commander Pavel Fedorovich Fedoseenko, flight engineer Andrei Bogdanovich Vasenko and research assistant Ilya Davydovich Usyskin got off the ground. that was the first winter flight of a stratospheric balloon in the history of aeronautics. Pavel Fedoseenko, who supervised the preparation of the stratospheric balloon, was a very experienced Soviet aeronaut who had flown back in the Civil War and participated in flights with Fridman. He believed that the risk of winter flight was extremely high.
At 9.6 on the ground they receive the first radiogram "Osoaviakhim-1": _____________________________________________________ "Listen, listen! Says Sirius! Height 1600 m. Clouds have passed. Temperature minus 3 degrees. "
Everything went within design limits, the risk of icing was minimal.
At 9.6 the OAX-1 crew transmits the second radiogram:
“This is Sirius! Altitude 15000 m by altimeter. We conduct continuous observations of cosmic rays. Three air samples were taken. The bottom is overcast. It is impossible to determine the direction. "
At 10.4 the following message:
“This is Sirius! Height 19000 meters! "
Indeed, a person from time immemorial, looking at the sky, dreams of exploring and conquering it. But in those days it was just a dream.
Now, we can confidently say that these dreams have come true. In truth, many satellites ply the vastness of space. And scientists monitor any changes in space. Undoubtedly, space flights have become an integral part of the history and life of mankind.
Obviously, the first difficulty in space exploration was the ability to overcome gravity. Fortunately, this problem was solved in the last century by the Russian scientist K.E. Tsiolkovsky. It was he who invented the liquid fuel for the space rocket. In addition, he also designed the rocket itself in 1903.
Then, in 1931, the construction of the first domestic rocket GIRD-09 began, under the leadership of S. Orolev.
In October 1957, the first artificial satellite was launched. By the way, it was created by S. Orolev. And it was named Sputnik-1. The rocket orbited the Earth in 96 minutes.
The purpose of creating and launching the first satellite was, firstly, to collect information about the Earth's atmosphere. Second, the transmission of radio signals to Earth. And, of course, checking the operation of the satellite itself.
This event undoubtedly influenced the further exploration of outer space and the development of new technologies.
The successful launch of satellites was just the beginning of space exploration. Scientists dreamed of sending a man into space. But it was very risky. Therefore, when the technological issue was settled, they decided to conduct an experiment on animals.
As you know, the dog Laika was the first space traveler. The rocket was launched successfully. But, unfortunately, during the flight, the temperature rose in the apparatus and the dog did not survive. The satellite itself burned out.
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