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Should there be "I will be released in 2023" on the territory of Russia?
The names of the first Axiom Space tourists who will fly to the ISS on SpaceX Crew Dragon have become known
Axiom Space has released details of the first private mission on SpaceX's Crew Dragon. Many of us have not guessed, Tom Cruise will not take part in this flight.
Michael Lopez-Alegria, Vice President of Axiom Space, former NASA astronaut. He managed to fly on Space Shuttles and Soyuz, and is still the record holder for time spent in outer space among American astronauts. Will be a pilot and mission commander.
Larry Connor is a 70-year-old American entrepreneur, investor and philanthropist. Will act as a mission pilot.
Mark Pati, Canadian investor and philanthropist. Mission Specialist, which most likely simply means crew member.
Eitan Stibbe, Israeli investor and philanthropist. Former pilot of the Israeli Air Force. Mission Specialist.
The mission participants will have to spend 8 days on the International Space Station, each day will cost one passenger $ 35,000, that is, a total of three tourists (Lopez-Alegria is not considered) will pay the company $ 840,000. These costs include food, space in the ISS and communications.
The cost of one tourist seat in SpaceX Crew Dragon is $ 60 million. It is planned that the first tourist flight of SpaceX and Axiom Space will take place in early 2022.
It is noteworthy that it was Lopez-Alegria who flew to the ISS with the space tourist Anushe Ansari in 2006 on the Soyuz TMA-9 spacecraft.
In 2011, the UN General Assembly proclaimed April 12 as the International Day of Human Space Flight. On this day, Soviet cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin made the first step in space exploration. Yandex has collected the most popular queries on the topic of space *, and the AiF. u decided to analyze the most interesting ones.
The word "space" (from the Greek kosmos - order, structure, peace) is a synonym for the Universe, which includes interplanetary, interstellar, intergalactic space with all bodies in it. Humanity associates space with the concept of the near region of the Universe, meaning only the interplanetary and near-Earth environment, which is located outside the Earth's atmosphere. That is, space is what surrounds the planet Earth - stars and planets, comets and asteroids, various cosmic luminaries and interstellar space.
Yuri Gagarin made a space flight on April 12, 1961 on the Vostok spacecraft. It lasted 1 hour and 48 minutes. During this time, the ship completed one revolution around the Earth. After gaining speed and separating from the last stage, the spacecraft began free flight in orbit around the Earth. The maximum distance of the spacecraft's orbit from the Earth's surface was 327 km. After 108 minutes from the moment of launch, the spacecraft began to descend from orbit for landing. At 10 hours 55 minutes Moscow time, the cosmonaut landed near the Volga coast near the village of Smelovka, Ternovsky district, Saratov region.
Alexey Leonov was the first to go into outer space. It happened on March 18, 1965 from the Voskhod-2 spacecraft piloted by the ship's commander Pavel Belyaev. To enter the open space, an airlock was additionally installed on the spacecraft, which consisted of 36 inflatable sections. The camera communicated with the cockpit by a special hatch with a sealing cover, and the spacewalk was carried out through a hatch in its upper part.
Leonov spent a total of 12 minutes and 9 seconds in outer space. During this time, he carried out the necessary observations and experiments, made five waste and approaches from the airlock. It was connected to the ship by a 5.35-meter halyard, which included a steel cable and electrical wires for transferring medical observations and technical measurements to the ship, as well as for telephone communication with the ship's commander.
“Temperatures in space are different. Most of space has a very low temperature, between galaxies the temperature is 2.7 Kelvin, this is 270 degrees below zero. As we approach different regions of galaxies, the temperature rises and can reach large values. In the area of the ISS, the temperature is also different, depending on where you watch it. If you look at the sun, then the temperature may be the same as on the surface of the Earth. If we isolate ourselves from the Sun, the temperature will be very low, including as low as I said - 270 ° C, ”says Nikolai Kardashev, director of the Astro Space Center of the Physics Institute of the Academy of Sciences, Doctor of Physics and Mathematics.
In 2023, Russia will open a new stage of the manned space age. For the first time, a space tourist will not only board an orbital station, but also step outside of it.
The Energia Rocket and Space Corporation announced the conclusion of a contract for a flight, involving a space tourist in outer space. “Between RSC Energia and Space Adventures Inc. (USA) signed a contract for the implementation in 2023 of a short-term expedition of two space flight participants aboard the Soyuz MS spacecraft to the Russian Segment of the International Space Station (ISS), - said in a message published on the corporation's website. "It is planned that during the expedition one of the space flight participants together with a professional Russian cosmonaut will make a spacewalk from the ISS Russian Segment."
The name of the potential "Leonov" in the field of space tourism has not yet been announced. The cost of the tour with a walk in open space has not been reported either.
The first talk of a possible commercialization of space travel began in the late 1960s. However, the practical implementation of these plans was impossible: manned launches were carried out only by the USSR and the USA, and the number of seats on board excluded the possibility of a wealthy citizen traveling without performing useful functions in the crew.
The American teacher Christa McAuliffe, who won the national competition and received the right to teach a lesson from orbit, is sometimes considered the first space tourist. However, McAuliffe died in the 1986 launch of the Challenger shuttle. After that, the United States passed a law prohibiting non-professional flights into orbit.
In 1990 and 1991, the first commercial cosmonauts flew into space: Japanese Toyohiro Akiyama and British Helen Sharman, who flew to the Soviet orbital station Mir on the Soyuz TM-11/Soyuz TM spacecraft -10 "and" Soyuz TM-12 "/" Soyuz TM-11 "on privately funded non-state projects of the TBS TV company and the consortium of British companies" Juneau ".
In the 1990s, in the face of a lack of funding for the domestic space program, the idea of selling seats on board Russian Soyuz to foreign millionaires became popular among the bosses of the domestic program.
In 2001, Dennis Tito, CEO of Wilshire Associates, one of the leading investment firms in the United States, paid $ 20 million for a flight on the Soyuz TM-32 spacecraft and the ISS along with cosmonauts Talgat Musabayev and Yuri Baturin.
Tito had heart problems during takeoff, and in orbit, pushing himself hard from the floor, he smashed his head on the ship's hatch. In both cases, cosmonaut Talgat Musabayev provided medical assistance, for which he received the title of "baby-nurse number 1" from Tito.
Nevertheless, Dennis was pleased with the flight: “This is the greatest adventure of my life. I visited heaven and soared like an angel, looking at the Earth. Knew it would be a risky adventure and prepared for the worst. However, all six days I was euphoric. "
A ticket to the moon may seem like a bored billionaire's whim. But space tourism has the potential to expand horizons for all of us, according to SpaceX engineers.
The company has already launched a project in which several of the first space tourists in history will go into the orbit of the moon. And this will only be the first journey, which will undoubtedly be followed by others.
Japanese billionaire Yusaku Maezawa has already been announced as the first tourist to go into space in 2023. He has already made an advance payment, but the full cost of the "voucher" is still kept secret from a wide range of ordinary people.
Maezawa will not be alone on his tour: with him, half a dozen more people will surf the expanses of space. The Japanese decided to offer participation in the adventure to several artists who, inspired by the beautiful landscapes of space, could paint pictures after their return.
SpaceX isn't the only company working on projects like this. Blue Origin and Virgin Galactic, as well as the Russian company Orbital Technologies, also announced new developments. All have announced a timeline that relates to the next decade.
The very fact that space is no longer accessible only to scientists and the military suggests that humanity has stepped forward. The future has already arrived, there are fewer and fewer boundaries, and the most daring dreams are getting more and more chances to come true.
This is a very important step in mastering new technologies and expanding space travel. Civilians could go into space before, but they always flew with professional astronauts. In the 2000s, seven millionaires and billionaires flew to the International Space Station aboard the Russian Soyuz spacecraft. But over the past decade, numerous private companies have made headway in the space travel industry.
If a steady flow of space tourists develops, this could open up more opportunities for scientists in such a matter as the exploration of interplanetary space.
In the field of modern world tourism, a new creative direction is gradually but rather actively developing - space tourism. This concept implies the provision of the opportunity for one person or as part of a group to make space travel. At the moment, there are not so many organizations providing such an original type of service around the world. And they all work according to a standard, streamlined scheme: payment, preparation, flight.
The essence of space tourism lies in the fact that modern tourists, after paying for them, can make a flight into low-earth orbit or into space. The popularity of this type of entertainment is gaining momentum, although space travel can be carried out for a variety of purposes. Ordinary people can fly into space:
Seeing interplanetary space, experiencing conditions of zero gravity, feeling like an almost full-fledged astronaut is a pleasure that, given the opportunity, it will be difficult to refuse even the most inquisitive person. In addition, many companies and agencies are developing the provision of various types of combined space services at a professional level.
For example, soon it will be easy to get married on board a spaceship, to celebrate a family or corporate event. Exciting walks in outer space are also planned - in spacesuits and with appropriate training. Like the flights themselves, such innovations will cost a lot, but for many modern entrepreneurs and show business representatives, the cost will not be a stumbling block, because indescribable emotions and adrenaline are at stake!
A few years ago, the notorious British company Excalibur Almaz announced that they were planning to fly tourist flights into space around the Moon. And in the future, a possible landing of space tourists on the lunar surface is also promised.
But life turned out to be much more prosaic, and now the Japanese billionaire investor Takafumi Horie is suing the head of the private space company Excalibur Almaz Arthur Gyula because he deceived him by spending more than $ 50 million on "secret Soviet space stations ", where he was promised to send tourists to the ISS and even to the Moon
The main disadvantage of this original type of tourist destination is the large amount of payment for pleasure. According to various sources, the cost of a space flight can now range from $ 20 to $ 40 million. As an additional entertainment, cosmotourism companies are offering a new type of service - the entry of space tourists into open space, the price of such an extreme is about 15 million dollars.
Also, in addition to additional services that are developed by modern companies, it is planned to build space housing for tourists. In such an “unearthly” hotel, one can feel even more exotic than when taking a flight. In this case, the main features of space hotels can be considered:
The most relevant at this moment is the project of Bigelow Aerospace, which was founded in 1999. After careful development of the NASA space project and the subsequent purchase of a patent by the owner of the company, in June 2006 Russia launched Genesis-1 - an experimental satellite "Bigelow Aerospace", which was created using new technologies. And in 2007, the Genesis-2 was launched on the Dnepr launch vehicle. The main purpose of the actions performed was to create opportunities for transferring the living module with an inflatable shell into open space.
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