Sanitary (medical) formalities - procedures related to checking the compliance of persons crossing the state border and their animals (if any) with the established requirements for vaccination (vaccinations). Control of compliance with these formalities is carried out by the sanitary services at the border points used for entry and exit from the country, and usually consists in checking the international vaccination certificate of tourists and travelers. Vaccination certificate - a certificate confirming the vaccination of its owner against certain epidemic diseases (plague, cholera, fever, smallpox, etc.). The certificate is issued by the official medical authorities of the country in the form established by the World Health Organization. It is necessary for tourists traveling to a country whose visit is allowed only if the tourist has this document. If necessary, sanitary (medical) formalities provide for the vaccination of tourists and travelers on the spot or their temporary isolation in quarantine if there is a possibility of transmission of infectious diseases. For animals transported by tourists and travelers, appropriate veterinary certificates are required. Compliance with the established sanitary (medical) rules in tourist trips is directly related to the safety of life and health of tourists. At the tenth assembly of the World Tourism Organization in October 1995, it was announced that the WTO would seek support for measures related to the protection of tourist health, travel safety, and sanitary control of food products. In turn, the World Health Organization (WHO) has developed Requirements for a certificate of vaccination when traveling abroad. These requirements are a practical guide for tourism organizations and tourists themselves. WHO also publishes an Epidemiological Yearbook and guidelines to reduce the spread of dangerous infections, including through tourism. WHO has working agreements with the WTO, according to which current information on sanitary (medical) formalities is published in the annual WTO publication Foreign Tourism - Border Formalities. The international sanitary (medical) rules of the World Health Organization have been in force since 1951. There are certain sanitary (medical) rules to avoid dangerous infectious diseases when traveling. These rules must be brought to the attention of clients by tourist enterprises before the start of the trip in the information sheet for the tourist voucher. The standard form of a tourist voucher contains a reminder that the tourist is obliged to familiarize himself with information about the host country and the peculiarities of behavior in it before paying for the trip, which is confirmed by his signature. In conclusion, it should be noted that tourist formalities are an integral part of international travel associated with the departure of people abroad of their national territory. The interests of developing international tourism in various states determine the need to develop national policies in this area, taking into account the maximum possible "simplification" of tourist formalities, since their excessive nature restricts tourist flows and negatively affects the income of the host countries. Tourist enterprises in their activities should organizationally facilitate the resolution of all formalities by timely informing clients and providing visa and other support.
Sanitary (medical) formalities are understood as procedures related to checking the compliance of persons crossing the state border with the established requirements for vaccination (vaccinations). Control of compliance with formalities is carried out by special sanitary services at the border points used for entry and exit from the country, and usually consists in checking the international certificate of vaccination from tourists and travelers. If necessary, sanitary formalities provide for the vaccination of tourists and travelers on the spot or their temporary isolation in quarantine if there is a possibility of transmission of infectious diseases.
The issue of observing the rules prescribed by medicine in tourist trips is very important, and life itself clearly proves this every year. According to the WHO, more than 1,000 cases of plague, 100,000 cases of cholera and many more cases of tropical malaria are recorded every year in the world. In Russia, the number of cases of malaria is increasing every year, including fatalities. The number of cases of the importation of tropical helminthiases by tourists has sharply increased. Serious infectious diseases in Russia are reported annually in several million people, of which about 10 thousand people. dies. A significant part of dangerous infections are imported from abroad.
As international practice shows, traveling abroad is becoming more and more risky. According to the materials of the London press, every fifth tourist traveling from European countries abroad either falls ill or finds himself in a situation from which he gets out not without damage to his health. The magazine "Holiday Week" conducted a survey of 16 thousand people who made foreign trips, and it turned out that there were twice as many tourists who received any injuries during the trip, about 15% of tourists fell ill during the trip, and the largest the risk zone is tropical countries, for example, 60% of tourists while visiting India fell ill, and primarily intestinal disorders.
It should be borne in mind that in the materials of the WTO and WHO, the boundaries of continents and various zones in which infectious quarantine diseases (yellow fever, cholera and others) are widespread, differ significantly from the purely geographical ones we are used to: EUROPE - in addition to Western countries includes the CIS states, the entire territory of Russia, as well as Cyprus, Iceland, Malta and Turkey; AMERICA - North, Central and South America, but excluding Hawaii; South America south of the Panama Canal Zone; AFRICA - Azores, Canary Islands, Cape Verde, Egypt, Madagascar, Madeira, Sudan; ASIA Bahrain, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Syria, UAE, Yemen; AUSTRALIA - including Tasmania; OCEANIA - including Australia, Papua New Guinea, New Zealand, all islands in the Pacific Ocean; CARIBBEAN ISLANDS - Anguila, Antigua, Aruba, Barbados, Barbuda, Bonair, British Virgin Islands, Cayman Islands, Cuba, Curacao, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Grenada, Guadeloupe, Haiti, Jamaica, Martinique, Souertois, Montserto Saint Barthélemy, Saint Eustatius, Saint Kitts, Santa Lucia, Saint Martin, Saint Vincent and Grenada, Trinidat and Tobago, US Virgin Islands.
Preparing tourists for travel and their behavior during the trip must comply with WHO and WTO recommendations. Document No. A/7/13 of the seventh session of the WTO General Assembly in the section "Safety and protection of tourists and tourist sites" states that "the paragraphs of this document have been revised in accordance with new information from WHO. Prevention of communicable diseases should include the education of tourists (for example, in AIDS cases), vaccination (for example, against yellow fever), and preventive treatment (for example, in the case of malaria). "
The Tenth WTO Assembly indicated the need to seek all support for measures related to tourist health, travel safety and food sanitation. The participants of the assembly called on the national tourism administrations to work closely with the health authorities of their countries in the provision of tourist information of a medical nature to all interested persons and travel agencies. In order to inform tourists and protect consumers, the assembly recommended that government agencies and the operational tourism sector unify their rules, taking into account the document "Medical information and formalities in international travel".
To this end, WHO publishes the following documents:
WHO has working agreements with the WTO, according to which current information on sanitary inspection formalities is published in the WTO's annual Foreign Tourism - Border Formalities. The WHO International Health Regulations have been in effect since 1951 and are periodically amended and amended. In the WHO documents and the International Certificates of Vaccination, dates must be indicated in the following order: day, month, year, and the name of the month must be indicated only in letters, for example: "January 5,1990".
It is extremely important to keep in mind that if a tourist, as prescribed by a doctor, regularly uses any specific medications, especially those containing narcotic substances, then in order to avoid misunderstandings with customs and authorities at the border of a foreign state, it is necessary to have a detailed medical prescription and a prescription for this drug, indicating the trade and Latin names. Optimally, a Russian tourist should have the named documents in English as well.
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