Sanitary (medical) formalities are procedures related to checking the compliance of persons crossing the state border and their animals (if any) with the established requirements for vaccination (vaccinations). Control of compliance with these formalities is carried out by the sanitary services at the border points used for entry and exit from the country, and usually consists in checking the international vaccination certificate of tourists and travelers.
Certificate of vaccination - a certificate confirming the vaccination of its owner against certain epidemic diseases (plague, smallpox, cholera, fever, etc.). The certificate is issued by the official medical authorities of the country in the form established by the World Health Organization. It is necessary for tourists traveling to a country whose visit is allowed only if the tourist has this document.
If necessary, sanitary (medical) formalities provide for the vaccination of tourists and travelers on the spot or their temporary isolation in quarantine if there is a possibility of transmission of infectious diseases. For animals transported by tourists and travelers, appropriate veterinary certificates are required.
Compliance with the established sanitary (medical) rules in tourist trips is directly related to the safety of life and health of tourists.
At the tenth assembly of the World Tourism Organization in October 1995, it was announced that the WTO would seek support for measures related to the protection of tourist health, travel safety, sanitary control of food products.
The International Sanitary (Medical) Regulations of the World Health Organization have been in force since 1951.
There are certain sanitary (medical) rules to avoid dangerous infectious diseases while traveling. These rules must be brought to the attention of clients by tourist enterprises before the start of the trip in the information sheet for the tourist voucher. The standard form of a tourist voucher contains a reminder that the tourist is obliged to familiarize himself with information about the host country and the peculiarities of behavior in it before paying for the trip, which is confirmed by his signature.
In conclusion, it should be noted that tourist formalities are an integral part of international travel associated with people leaving their national territory. The interests of developing international tourism in various states determine the need to develop national policies in this area, taking into account the maximum possible "simplification" of tourist formalities, since their excessive nature restricts tourist flows and negatively affects the income of the host countries. Tourist companies in their activities should contribute to the resolution of all formalities in an organized manner by informing clients in a timely manner and providing visa and other support.
Sanitary and Epidemiological Rules for International Travel
The issue of observing the rules prescribed by medicine in tourist trips is very important, and life itself clearly proves this every year. According to the WHO, more than 1,000 cases of plague, 100,000 cases of cholera and many more cases of tropical malaria are recorded every year in the world. In Russia, the number of cases of malaria is increasing every year, including fatalities. The number of cases of the importation of tropical helminthiases by tourists has sharply increased. Several million people are diagnosed with serious infectious diseases in Russia every year, of which about 10 thousand die. A significant part of oaps infections are imported from abroad.
As international practice shows, traveling abroad is becoming more and more risky. According to the materials of the London press, every fifth tourist traveling from European countries abroad either falls ill or finds himself in a situation from which he gets out not without damage to his health. The magazine "Holiday Week" conducted a survey of 16 thousand people who made foreign trips, and it turned out that the number of tourists who received any injuries during the trip has doubled, about 15% of tourists fall ill during the trip, with the largest zone tropical countries are at risk, for example 60% of tourists while visiting India fell ill, and primarily intestinal disorders.
The table provides data on the number of cases when visiting countries with hot climates.
Preparing tourists for travel and their behavior during the trip must comply with WHO and WTO recommendations. Document No. A/7/13 of the seventh session of the WTO General Assembly in the section “Safety and protection of tourists and tourist sites” states that “the paragraphs of this document have been revised in accordance with new information from WHO. Prevention of communicable diseases should include education for tourists (for example, in the case of AIDS), vaccinations (for example, against yellow fever), and preventive treatment (for example, in the case of malaria). "
Health formalities are understood as procedures related to verifying compliance by persons crossing the border with vaccination, vaccination and other special requirements (health, epidemiological, veterinary, etc.). The World Health Organization (WHO) has developed. The requirements for a certificate of vaccination when traveling abroad serve as practical recommendations for tourism, political firms and tourists around the world. The International Health Regulations have been in effect since 1951 and are periodically amended and revised. Recommendations designed to reduce the possibility of the spread of dangerous infections, including through tourism, are published in the WHO Epidemiological Yearbook, working agreements with the UNWTO, according to which current information on formalities related to sanitary control is published in the annual UNWTO Foreign tourism - border formalities
Participants in the 10th UNWTO Health Assembly (1993) called on national tourism administrations to actively collaborate with the health authorities of their countries to provide health tourism information to all stakeholders. It was noted that the UNWTO to seek support for measures related to the protection of the health of tourists, the safety of their travel, sanitary and food control.
The quarantine diseases of international importance include plague, cholera, smallpox, yellow fever, and malaria. The WHO concluded that malaria deaths among tourists who traveled to the stove countries were mainly due to their ignorance or their underestimation of the danger of the disease. Malaria provokes many other illnesses, such as the common cold, and the initial diagnosis is difficult even for a qualified physician to make correctly.
Tourists wishing to travel to a country with an increased risk of infectious diseases are required to undergo prophylaxis in accordance with international medical requirements (health formalities and.
The yellow fever zone is in. America :. Brazil,. Bolivia,. Colombia,. Venezuela,. Peru,. Ecuador; in. Africa :. Zambia,. Kenya,. Tanzania,. Ghana,. Guinea,. Nigeria,. Sudan. Going to these countries, a tourist must get vaccinated no later than a month before departure, receive an international certificate of vaccination and a doctor's opinion that there are no contraindications for travel. Without this, the tourist will be removed from the flight for reasons and health regulations. The offending tourist can be placed in an isolation ward on. Incubation period. In case of contraindications to vaccinations (for example, pregnancy, colds, allergy to egg yolk), a trip to the listed countries cannot take place. Since the risk of contracting an infectious disease exists practically throughout the territory of these countries, the presence of an international certificate when entering a country is mandatory.
When traveling to countries unfavorable for malaria (Kenya, Zimbabwe, Indonesia, China, Oman, India, Sri Lanka, etc.), it is necessary to regularly take antimalarial drugs, starting a week before the Wii ride and within a month after returning.
Tourists traveling to countries where such quarantine diseases as cholera, plague, and smallpox are common are subject to vaccination. Smallpox is common in. Africa :. Mozambique,. Tanzania,. Uganda,. Zimbabwe,. Zaire,. Angola ,. Guards Wine ,. Congo, in. Asia :. India,. Vietnam; in. South. America :. Bolivia,. Brazil,. Peru,. Venezuela,. Guatemala,. Colombia,. Mexico
The plague should be feared when traveling to. Vietnam,. Bolivia ,. Brazil ,. Peru,. Zambia. Zimbabwe,. Tanzania, on. Madagascar
Cholera is common in. Asia :. Afghanistan,. Vietnam,. India,. Iran,. China,. Malaysia,. Mongolia,. Philippines,. Sri Lanka; in. America :. Argentina,. Bolivia,. Brazil,. Venezuela,. Colombia,. Mexico,. Costa Rica,. Ecuador; in. Africa :. Zambia,. Kenya,. Mozambique,. Tanzania,. Uganda.
It is necessary to prepare tourists for a trip to infectious areas taking into account the recommendations. WHO and IG *. P bmezhuvalny measures of accommodation, food and rest, vaccination against dangerous diseases (for example, against yellow fever), preventive treatment (in the case of malaria). The main rule, which must be strictly observed by travel agencies and tourists themselves: during a trip to the countries of the hot zone and upon returning from them, at the slightest discomfort, it is necessary to urgently consult a doctor, naming the country from which they returned.
Advertising year-round trips abroad, travel agencies prepare information publications that talk about the impact on the health of tourists, in particular, climate change. Moving from cold winters to hot summers is not always safe for health, especially for the elderly and children. Before traveling to the tropics, tourists should consult a doctor.