Globalism: what it is, how it works and who benefits from it

Globalism: what it is, how it works and who benefits from it

Andy Warhol admired that the President of the United States, a movie star and a bum on the street all sip Coca-Cola. The same soda is now drunk on six continents, the same Snickers are sold at checkout counters in supermarkets around the world, and McDonald's restaurants offer snacks in 118 of the 197 countries that exist today. By 2020, Chinese cinemas will bring Hollywood more money than American cinemas, the whole world knows Leonardo DiCaprio by sight, and the US president came into politics from a popular reality show. Feminists appear even in Muslim countries, there are fewer and fewer cities left where the LGBT movement does not march, vegetarianism and environmental activism are ceasing to be marginal hobbies and are turning into a fashionable lifestyle, and most economically developed countries take animal advocates into account. Welcome to the global world.

What is globalization?

The ideal Internet - free space without prohibitions - can be considered a model that combines all the best from globalization. Access to any information, contacts with like-minded people and buying goods around the globe, thousands of free services, the opportunity to explore world history and culture, get an online education and find a job outside your city and country - these are the achievements of globalization.

A world without globalization is easiest to imagine using the example of a limited Internet, in which access to external resources is closed, you cannot buy imported goods and download foreign films, music, books. Messengers do not work or only allow you to contact compatriots. The content is strictly monitored by censorship, and users have no right to express thoughts contrary to ideological dogmas. In its extreme form, this approach is typical for the DPRK, where Internet access can be obtained only with the personal permission of Leadership Genius Kim Jong-un, while everyone else is forced to use the intranet, the internal North Korean network.

Every year the "global village", as Marshall McLuhan said, is getting closer and closer. However, this process can proceed according to two opposite scenarios: a unipolar world, where people move freely around the globe, earn money in different countries, actively influence what is happening, independently choose their worldview, sexual orientation and form political preferences, and a multipolar world is fundamentally not hegemonic civilizations that agree with each other, in which the borders are strong, and clouds of war and a global ecological catastrophe gather over the planet.

Why is the global world called the “end of history”?

Globalization accelerated when the Soviet Union collapsed. The bipolar world, in which two dominant doctrines - liberal and communist fought (often in the form of military conflicts) - turned into a unipolar one. Capitalism has triumphed.

In 1989, when the USSR took a course towards economic liberalization and practically recognized the collapse of communist ideology, the American philosopher and political scientist Francis Fukuyama published a keynote article entitled "The End of History?" He argued that in such a unipolar world “all contradictions are resolved and all needs are satisfied. There is no struggle, no serious conflicts, so there is no need for generals and statesmen. " And the main and only concern of mankind is the economy. The state-utopia of the end of history has a "universal" character, recognizes the freedom and rights of every individual and exists with the consent of all people. There is no philosophy, no art, no ideology - only mutual enrichment and technological development, and the main players are no longer states, but giant corporations.

When and how did globalization start?

Economy is one of the main engines of globalization processes in the world. The Great Silk Road from East Asia to the Mediterranean, which China used for trade with the Indian, Arab and European peoples, allowed the formation of a single market space for these regions. The next large-scale turn was the colonization by Portuguese and Spanish merchants of America, and then the birth of the first transnational corporation - the Dutch East India Company, which connected Europe with Asian countries. The invention of the steam engine, railways and the industrial revolution in the 18th and 19th centuries led to a sharp increase in economic production and a revival of international trade, but then this development of the global market was slowed down for almost half a century due to two world wars.

How does the global economy work?

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