Yeysk is a resort town on the Azov coast of Russia, the fifth most populous city in the Krasnodar Territory. Since its foundation it has been a seaport. The city is located at the base of the Yeisk spit, between the Taganrog Bay and the Yeisk estuary of the Azov Sea. The name of the city comes from the river Yeya, which flows into the Yeisk estuary. The inhabitants of the city of Yeysk are called sheikans.
Back in 1777-1778, on the site of modern Yeisk, the so-called Khan's town was built, which was supposed to become the reserve capital of the principality and the residence of the protégé of Russia, the Crimean Khan Shagin-Girey. In 1783, at the walls of the Khan town in the presence of the troops of Alexander Suvorov, a manifesto was read about the annexation of the Crimea, Taman and the Right-Bank Kuban to Russia.
In 1847, the ataman of the Black Sea Cossack army Grigory Rashpil initiated the creation of a port city at the base of the Yeisk spit. The idea was actively supported by the governor of the Caucasus, His Serene Highness Prince Mikhail Semyonovich Vorontsov, the result of which was the Decree of Sovereign Emperor Nicholas I dated March 6, 1848 No. 22058 "On the opening of the Black Sea port city of Yeisk on the Sea of Azov within the army of the Black Sea port city of Yeisk":
In order to teach the inhabitants of the Stavropol province and the troops of the Black Sea new means for the successful and profitable sale abroad of agricultural products and thereby contribute to the development of all industries in this region, on the Sea of Azov, near the so-called Yeisk spit , open a port and establish a city that will be called the port city of Yeisk.
The city was founded on August 19, 1848 (August 31, 1848 in a new style). The first temporary head of the city was Pyotr Litevsky. In 1849 he was replaced by the permanent mayor - Prince Alexander Golitsyn.
On September 1, 1849, the site for the construction of the Pokrovsky prayer house was consecrated, in which the priest of st. Staroshcherbinovskaya archpriest Thomas Prague and Yeisk priest Pavel Yaroshevich. Already on October 1, 1950, the construction was completed, and the meetinghouse was consecrated.
During the Crimean War of 1853-1856, Yeisk was badly damaged by shelling from the British squadron operating in the Sea of Azov. The most tragic events for Yeisk unfolded on October 22-24, 1855, when the city, under continuous shelling, was attacked by amphibious assault forces. In general, every tenth house burned down in Yeisk during the war.
In the second half of the 19th century, several educational institutions were opened in Yeisk (a three-year district school, a Kuban military gymnasium, a real six-grade school, the Ksenin women's gymnasium, etc.), most of the streets were paving. Since 1875, regular lighting has appeared in Yeisk.
Administratively Yeisk was part of the Yeisk department of the Kuban region.
By the beginning of the XX century, Yeisk turns into a major center of international trade and becomes the cultural center of the South of Russia. In 1904, on the initiative of the city authorities, the port was reconstructed, and in 1911 the Yeisk Railroad Joint Stock Company, created on the initiative of the mayor V. Nenashev, opened a railway connection. The resort business has been developing in the city since 1912. On the basis of the reserves of hydrogen sulfide water and mud of the Khan Lake discovered on the territory of the city, a balneological resort has emerged, which exists to the present day.
During the First World War, the importance of Yeisk as an international port declines: it is used mainly for rear army transportation.
After the October Revolution of 1917, power in Yeisk passed from hand to hand a total of six times. On the Yeisk peninsula there was a confrontation between the "whites" and the "reds". The symbol of the Reds was the city of Yeisk. The Cossack villages of the Yeisk peninsula performed under the white banner. Soviet power in Yeisk was first established on February 2, 1918. On the night of April 30 to May 1, a bloody assault on Yeisk by White Guard Cossacks took place, which, however, was repulsed. The next attempt to seize Yeisk was carried out in early July, when in one night a White Guard landing force, numbering about 600 people, captured the seaport and several ships in the roadstead. However, the white movement was able to conquer Yeisk only a few days later - on July 12 (July 25 in the new style). The Bolsheviks took back the city in March 1920.
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