Modern features of the development and territorial organization of the sanatorium-resort economy in Belarus

Modern features of the development and territorial organization of the sanatorium-resort economy in Belarus

The article examines the most important modern features of the development and territorial organization of the sanatorium-resort economy of the Republic of Belarus, presents an analysis of the dynamics of the main indicators of the industry's functioning, highlights the key directions and results of the reform of the sanatorium-resort economy in Belarus in the 2000s.

The sanatorium and resort industry is one of the leading sectors of the world and domestic tourism industry, it has a significant recreational and resource potential, a developed material and technical base and stands out for its relatively high rates of service volumes. The sanatorium-resort economy of Belarus is currently operating in market conditions, the enterprises of the industry are striving to expand the volume of paid services provided, including their export to foreign tourist markets. At the same time, the system of sanatorium and resort services performs important social functions, ensuring the organization of affordable medical recreation for the population of the Republic of Belarus. Significant changes are taking place in the regional structure of the network of sanatorium and resort institutions, largely due to the consequences of the disaster at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant. Taking into account the above, the scientific analysis of modern features of the development and territorial organization of the sanatorium-resort economy seems to be relevant.

Among foreign studies of trends in the development of health tourism and the global spa industry, one should note the works of M. Cohen [18], M. Tabacchi [19]. The works of the Russian researcher A. Vetitneva [1; 2]. Belarusian scientists to the greatest extent have developed scientific and methodological issues of assessing climatic and hydromineral medicinal natural resources and trends in their development (O. Krylova [3], A. Kudelsky [4], I. Pirozhnik [8], M. Yasoveev [16; 17]), the territorial organization of the resort and recreational economy (I. Pirozhnik [10], G. Potayev [11], A. Traskevich [13; 15]).

The purpose of this article is to identify and analyze the most important features of the development and patterns of the territorial organization of the sanatorium-resort economy of the Republic of Belarus.

Structural features of the network of sanatorium-resort and health-improving institutions

Various types of recreational facilities function in the system of the sanatorium-resort economy of the Republic of Belarus. Sanatorium-resort organizations include sanatoriums, student sanatoriums-dispensaries, children's rehabilitation and health centers. Health-improving organizations include dispensaries, health centers (complexes), educational and health centers, health camps, sports and health camps, recreation houses (bases), boarding houses, etc.

The highest growth rates of the material and technical base and volumes of sanatorium and resort services were achieved in Belarus during the 1960-1970s, when, given the social importance of medical and recreational activities, the industry received significant funding from the state budget and social insurance funds (tab. 1).

Table 1. Dynamics and structure of bed capacity of sanatorium-resort and health-improving institutions of Belarus, thousand places Type of institution 1960196519701975198019901995200020052010 Sanatoriums and boarding houses with treatment5,56,77,79,510,213,214,116,315,717,4 , 09.01.0 Rest homes, boarding houses 1.73,64,44,76,03,23,32,10,70.9 Recreation centers - 4,88,011,013,614,011,88,71,6 Total 7,711,519,427,335,042,045,547,134,131,9

Source: compiled according to the data of the National Statistical Committee of the Republic of Belarus [cit. by .: 9; 12].

During the period of active reform of the national health resort system in the 2000s. a decrease in the capacity of the bed fund of sanatorium and health resorts due to the closure or re-profiling of uncompetitive health resorts was recorded: in 2000, 47.1 thousand beds, 2010, 31.9 thousand beds. However, as a result of the implementation of market transformations and the improvement of the organization of domestic sanatorium treatment and health improvement, the indicators of service volumes have been steadily increasing since the mid-1990s: 1995 515.1 thousand places, 2010 742.8 thousand places (Table 2). At the same time, the increase in gross volume of services in the past 15 years is partly due to the reduction in the average length of stay of vacationers in health resorts.

Table 2. Dynamics and structure of volumes of sanatorium and resort services by types of health resorts, thous. Institution type 1960196519701975198019901995200020052010 Total, incl. 9143,1319,81074,61722,71501,7515,1570,6639,6742,8 Sanatoriums and boarding houses with treatment 2830,148,071,890,8152,2186,3238255,7382,2 Sanatoriums-dispensaries 329.1 Recreation houses and boarding houses 3680,887,788,911058,850,51810,625,8 Recreation centers - 48,934,441,258112,3100,190,869,8

Source: compiled according to the data of the National Statistical Committee of the Republic of Belarus [cit. by .: 9; 12].

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