Vorkuta was founded in 1936, and received the status of a city in 1943. The entire history of the formation and development of the city is associated with coal mining. In Soviet times, Vorkuta was the basis of the Vortgulag camp. The city is located beyond the Arctic Circle, in the Komi Republic. Vorkuta includes 10 settlements and 5 small villages.
For tourists, this place is primarily interesting because of geological monuments and permafrost. Here you can watch a unique miracle of the earth - the Northern Lights. In recent years, ethnic tourism, extreme types of recreation (boating and catamarans down the Kara River, skiing) have begun to develop rapidly. The following points of interest should be added to the guide:
The museum was founded in July 1959. On May 3, 1960, by the resolution of the executive committee of the city of Vorkuta, the opening of the local history museum was appointed. It was created thanks to the efforts of 50 large factories in the city. The expositions told about the history of the emergence and formation of the city of Vorkuta.
For the first time, an exhibition of paintings by artists of Vorkuta was created in the museum. In 1965 the gallery became a branch of the V. Lenin. In our time, restoration work is being carried out in the museum. The exhibition "North: Nature and Man" from the Vorkuta Gallery is in the museum in the village of Vorshagor.
In 1955, the State Puppet Theater received an official professional status. The theater is located in the building of the Miners' Palace of Culture. The building was built by the GULAG prisoners. In the Palace of Culture, a small hall with a capacity of 130 seats and a small stage are set aside for the puppet theater.
In 1943, a drama theater was created by political prisoners from the Gulag. On October 1 of the same year, under the leadership of B. Mordvinov. on the stage of the theater the actors showed the operetta "Silva" by the author Imre Kalman. During the years of the Great Patriotic War, the troupe included 150 people who presented 600 performances to the audience. After the camp was disbanded in 1950, the drama theater began its stormy activity. At present, the theater's repertoire is represented by paintings by contemporary authors and classical plays.
The Vorkuta Museum and Exhibition Center was founded in honor of the 70th anniversary of the founding of the city. It is located in the building of the local history museum.
The complex was included in the reconstruction program "Development of the" Culture "industry in 2011-2013". The debut exposition included art exhibits of the local history museum. The second exposition is represented by photographs of the Vorkutaugol company, which was called “Black Gold of Vorkuta”.
Today, exhibitions of contemporary artists of Vorkuta are shown in the halls of the exhibition complex, musical and literary evenings are held.
Vorkuta is often called the city at the end of the world - you can get there only by plane or train.
Vorkuta is the easternmost European city and one of the largest outside the Arctic Circle. The name translated from the Komi language sounds like "Bear's corner".
The city gained notoriety after the gulag was organized here under Soviet rule. The total number of prisoners who worked in coal mines is over 70 thousand people. Convicts arrived in these places until the eighties of the 20th century.
Since 2000, ethnic and extreme tourism has been actively developing here. In winter, there are reindeer and dog sled races, and tours of the tundra on reindeer or horses are organized. Fishing and berry picking flourishes in summer.
Vorkuta is surrounded on all sides by abandoned mines and workers' settlements.
For the convenience of planning the route, we marked all the sights mentioned on the city map:
Vorkuta Museum and Exhibition Center
The museum was opened in 1960, the first expositions told about the history of the region, the development of the coal industry and the life of the population.
The Vorkuta Music and Drama Theater has donated posters and programs from the very first performances to the museum's collection. From the camps, they brought objects of camp life: chess made of bread crumb, playing cards.
In total, the funds contain more than seven hundred items made by the hands of prisoners, including postcards and issues of the newspaper "Zapolyarnaya Kochegarka". The stands showcase the craftsmanship of the indigenous peoples - Nenets and Chukchi - bags, clothes, toys and jewelry.
After the excavations, the skulls of a musk ox and a cave bear, bones and tusks of a mammoth were handed over to the museum fund. There are more than fourteen thousand historical finds in the museum, and the collection is constantly growing.
Famed for several important landmarks, Vorkuta is still a mining town with a tragic fate. In the minds of many Russians, it is strongly associated with repression, fear, torture and hard work in inhuman conditions. The mysteriously frightening northern edge will open to courageous tourists an important milestone in the history of the country, if you come here and get acquainted with its most interesting places.
In the vicinity of Vorkuta, you can find many interesting places, monuments and sculptures. But the main attractions of the city are associated with the history and nature of the Arctic.
One of the largest polar museums contains about 14 thousand artifacts. The museum funds include unique exhibits from the life of Soviet prisoners: playing cards, dishes, chess pieces made from bread crumb.
In the center you can learn a lot of interesting things about the crafts of the indigenous peoples of the North. The exhibition contains handmade items created by the Chukchi and Nenets: clothing, jewelry, household items.
The expositions of the sights also feature archaeological finds: the remains of extinct animals and fossils. Exhibitions of photographs and children's drawings are held in a separate room.
The reserve was established in September 1989. It protects the flora and fauna of the mountains and plains. The plains at the foot of the ridge are dotted with water bodies. The reserve's land is nourished by many rivers, streams and karst lakes. It is forbidden to carry out any activity on its territory that may harm the unique nature of the region.
Vorkuta, which was built by Stalin's prisoners and where they then went for good earnings from all over the USSR, is dying. Housing in the city and neighboring villages is so cheap, and communal apartments are so expensive that it is easier to donate an apartment to someone than to find a buyer. The municipality has accumulated about 5 thousand empty apartments. Every year, 2000 people leave here, another 800 die before being evacuated "to the mainland." The population is shrinking every year. Znak journalists. om went to the easternmost city in Europe to see with their own eyes the dying "Soviet Eldorado" and understand the reasons for the decline.
The city of coal and miners 180 kilometers from the Kara Sea is Vorkuta. There are two developed fields here: Vorkutskoye and Vorgashorskoye. Both are part of the Pechora coal basin. The Vorkutskoye field, 70 kilometers above the mouth of the river of the same name (the Pechora river basin), was discovered in 1930. Later they proved the presence of oil here as well.
In May 1931, a party of 43 political prisoners from the Ukhto-Pechora forced labor camp came here, to the Vorkuta field. “All with the 58th article of the Criminal Code of the RSFSR. They go without protection. Their task is to calculate the coal reserves and start the construction of the first mine, ”says Irina Vitman, chief expert on the history of the Gulag in Vorkuta. The city of Vorkuta began with the wintering of these 43 prisoners in the area of the new field. Its historical center is the village of Rudnik.
According to Vitman, after the first pariah of prisoners from Ukhta, the next stage came to the deposit “through Kamen (as the Ural ridge was formerly called) from Obdorsk (now Salekhard)”. There were already 3.7 thousand of them. Almost no one, with the exception of 54 people, was able to survive until spring. But who then reckoned with this? Then they brought in another 5 thousand prisoners, more and more. For the first 30 years, Vorkuta was rebuilt by prisoners. From the late 1930s until the death of Joseph Stalin in 1953, Vorkutlag was located in Vorkuta - one of the largest camps in the Gulag.
Many famous people in the USSR passed through it. Among them is Marshal Konstantin Rokossovsky, who was released in March 1940 on a personal petition to Stalin by Marshal Semyon Timoshenko. “There is no exact data, but approximately 2 million people passed through the Vorkuta camps, about 200 thousand of them remained here lying in the ground. Initially, they simply dumped them into the pits and under the snow. Only then were they allowed to bury and at least put plates with the prisoner's number, ”says Vitman.
It's a paradox, but the song "The Prosecutor's Daughter", known for its chorus "Across the tundra, along the railway, where the train" Vorkuta - Leningrad "rushes", was not written here. The copyright for the song belongs to the poet Grigory Shurmak, who wrote it in 1942 while working at a uranium mine in Uzbekistan.
Another paradox - because of Vorkuta, the memorial project of Ernst Neizvestny "The Triangle of Suffering" has not yet been completed. The sculptor planned to close it by installing three "Masks of Sorrow" - in Magadan (staged in 1990), in Yekaterinburg (in 2017) and in Vorkuta. According to Vitman, several years ago she saw casts of the composition of the Unknown for Vorkuta from the chief architect of the city, Vitaly Troshin. Where they are now, no one knows, and, according to the local historian, no one will even raise the question of funds for this monument. “There are so many other problems that our men with pitchforks will simply demolish the mayor's office if they mention it,” says Vitman.
There is not even an exposition dedicated to the Gulag era in the city now. At the mine, where the prisoners' barracks used to stand, now airsoft players arrange their battles in the summer. In Vorkuta itself, there is now only one correctional colony No. 22, but it is also planned to be closed, as local residents say.
Friends, I am preparing one of the most interesting new Arctic routes from the Severok aircraft. In order not to load the main line "To Cape Sterlegov", and due to the originality of the route, I will take it out separately. The flight period is February-March.
Vorkuta - Thermal spring Pym Va Shor on the Adzva river. Length, 150 kilometers one way.
So, we fly out of the winter city, and Severok, lying on the left wing, goes west into the tundra. About 50 kilometers along a rare winter road to the picturesque Bol lake. arbaits.
One minute! The lake is stretched from south to north for 9 km and is one of the largest lakes in the Bolshezemelskaya tundra. Fishing is allowed here and ruff, pike, ide, crucian carp, peled, grayling, whitefish are perfectly caught. If we fly out early, we manage to catch fish.
Now another hundred kilometers across the prairie. Heights up to two hundred meters, ridges and ridges, river B. ogovaya (pictured) There are no people anywhere. Only a rare chick can fly here and not become an eagle on the way
Pym Va Shor (Stream of warm water) Belongs to the category of regional natural monuments of the NAO. A permit is required to visit (now I am preparing) "Thermal springs flow from cracks in the rocks of the left side of the valley. One of them flows out of a rock high from the level of the stream and has a temperature of + 29 ° C. Somewhat lower along the stream at the foot of the rocks, there are three springs in a row with water temperatures + 28 ° С.Slightly higher along the stream on the very shore, three more springs flow out with a water temperature of + 18-18.5 ° С.
The composition is sodium chloride, the mineralization reaches 2.1–3.5 g/l, which makes it possible to classify the water as a drinking medical table. Since ancient times, the water of the springs has been considered curative, curing stomach, lung, chest, eye and skin diseases. These are the only hot springs in the Far North beyond the Arctic Circle! "Photo site nordural. U
We set up a tent, swim, relax, take some water with us. We clean up after ourselves. It should be clean after us!
Next. or we continue the route to the village of Haruta NAO to visit friends, with an overnight stay. (Distance from the source 70 km S-W) Or back to Vorkuta. Pictured, Haruta.
See you in the Arctic, everyone who is light on their feet! You can take part in the flight after my preliminary reconnaissance and landing preparation. Write in a personal. P/S Thanks to those who were able to support the organization of flights in 2018 and purchased the calendar from the Severok aircraft! There are very few of them left.
Photo along the route (A. gorkin).
Summer Lake Big Harbeyty
Friends, I am preparing one of the most interesting new Arctic routes from the Severok aircraft. In order not to load the main line "To Cape Sterlegov", and due to the originality of the route, I will take it out separately. Flights are scheduled from February to March.
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